Research Article
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Evaluation of HMF levels in unbranded flower honeys in terms of food safety

Year 2022, Volume , Issue , 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.886000

Abstract

5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed by reducing sugars in honey in acidic environments by the Maillard reaction and is known as a carcinogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic compound. In addition to processing, storage conditions and sugars, moisture and acidity of the honey affects the formation of HMF. The aim of this study was to investigate toxic HMF content and effects of some quality parameters on this content, in unbranded flower honey samples sold on the sides of the highway. The quality of the analysis results was guaranteed by participating in an international proficiency test. A HPLC device with DAD and RI detectors was used for determining HMF and sugar levels. The mean levels of HMF, fructose, glucose, sucrose, moisture and free acidity were found to be 18.3 mg kg-1, 37.12%, 30.58%, 0.18%, 14.63%, and 22.55 meq kg-1, respectively. The HMF levels of 5 honey samples were determined to exceed the legal limit (40 mg kg-1). No correlation was found between HMF and other parameters examined in this study. Therefore, it is considered that honeys with HMF level above the legal limit were stored for a long time or was exposed to sunlight and heat treatment.

References

  • Apriceno A, Bucci R, Girelli AM, et al (2018): 5- Hydroxymethyl furfural determination in Italian honeys by a fast near infrared spectroscopy. Microchem J, 143, 140-144.
  • Batu A, Küçük E, Çimen M (2013). Determination of the physicochemical and biochemical values of flower honeys obtained from Eastern Anatolia and Eastern Black Sea regions. EJFT, 87, 52-62.
  • Belitz H-D, Grosch, W, Schieberle P (2009): Food Chemistry. 4th revised and enlarged edition. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin.
  • Bogdanov S (2009): Harmonised Methods of the International Honey Commission. Available at https://www.ihc-platform.net/ihcmethods2009.pdf. (Accessed February 20, 2021).
  • Capuano E, Fogliano V (2011): Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF): A review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food and mitigation strategies. LWT-Food Sci Technol, 44, 793-810.
  • da Silva PM, Gauche C, Gonzaga LV, et al (2016): Honey: Chemical composition, stability and authenticity. Food Chem, 196, 309-323.
  • de Smet, L, Saegerman C, Ravoet J, et al (2018): Hydroxylmethylfurfural induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of the Toll pathway in honey bees. 296. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium of the ICP-PR Bee Protection Group; Ghent, Belgium.
  • Dümen E, Akkaya H, Öz GM, et al (2013): Microbiological and parasitological quality of honey produced in İstanbul. Turk J Vet Anim Sci, 37, 602-607.
  • Escriche I, Kadar M, Juan-Borras, M, et al (2014): Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment. Food Chem, 142, 135-143.
  • Güler Z (2005): The chemical and sensory properties of honeys produced in the east blacksea region. Gıda, 30, 379-384.
  • Güzel N, Bahçeci KS (2020): Assesment of some chemical quality parameters of honeys produced in Çorum province. Gıda, 45, 230-241.
  • Horwitz, W., & Albert, R (2006): The Horwitz ratio (HorRat): a useful index of method performance with respect to precision. J AOAC Int, 89, 1095-1109.
  • Islam MN, Khalil MI, Islam MA, et al (2014): Toxic compounds in honey. J Appl Toxicol, 34, 733-742.
  • Kahraman T, Buyukunal SK, Vural A, et al (2010): Physico-chemical properties of honey from different regions of Turkey. Food Chem, 123, 41-44.
  • Korkmaz SD, Küplülü Ö (2017). Effects of storage temperature on HMF and diastase activity of strained honeys. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg, 64, 281-287.
  • Kutlu M, Bengü AŞ (2015). Identification of the quality criteria of honey produced in Gaziantep. TJNS, 4, 48-53.
  • Magnusson B, Örnemark U (2014): The Fitness for Purpose of Analytical Methods – A Laboratory Guide to Method Validation and Related Topics. Available at https://www.eurachem.org/images/stories/Guides/pdf/MV_guide_2nd_ed_EN.pdf. (Accessed February 20, 2021).
  • Önür İ, Misra NN, Barba FJ, et al (2018): Effects of ultrasound and high pressure on physicochemical properties and HMF formation in Turkish honey types. J Food Eng, 219, 129-136.
  • Sakač MB, Jovanov PT, Marić AZ, et al (2019): Physicochemical properties and mineral content of honey samples from Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia). Food chem, 276, 15-21.
  • Sant'Ana LD, Ferreira ABB, Lorenzon MCA, et al (2014): Correlation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Brazilian honeys with colour and antioxidant capacity. Int J Food Prop, 17, 65-76.
  • 21. Şengül M, Şengül M, Dodoloğlu A (2006). Erzurum’da üretilen balların fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri. 863. In: Proceedings of the 9. Gıda Mühendisliği Kongresi; Bolu, Turkey.
  • Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı (2020): Turkish Food Codex Honey Communiqué Available at https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2020/04/20200422-13.htm. (Accessed February 20, 2021).
  • Tomlinson AJ, Landers JP, Lewis IAS, et al (1993): Buffer conditions affecting the separation of Maillard reaction products by capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A, 652, 171-177.
  • Turkut GM, Degirmenci A, Yildiz O, et al (2018): Investigating 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation kinetic and antioxidant activity in heat treated honey from different floral sources. J Food Meas Charact, 12, 2358-2365.
  • Unubol Aypak S, Inci A, Bakirci S, et al (2018): Comparison of the antioxidant activity and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels in honey taken from hives and markets. Gıda, 44, 86-92
  • Yaşar S, Söğütlü İ (2020). Investigation of acidity, diastase number, HMF, insoluble dry matter and ash percentage values of some honey samples produced in Bingöl and districts. Van Vet J, 31, 42-45.
  • Yıldız İ, Rasgele PG, Kekeçoğlu M (2018): Determination of the physicochemical properties of pine, cotton, multifloral and sunflower honeys. U Bee J., 16, 2-11.

Year 2022, Volume , Issue , 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.886000

Abstract

References

  • Apriceno A, Bucci R, Girelli AM, et al (2018): 5- Hydroxymethyl furfural determination in Italian honeys by a fast near infrared spectroscopy. Microchem J, 143, 140-144.
  • Batu A, Küçük E, Çimen M (2013). Determination of the physicochemical and biochemical values of flower honeys obtained from Eastern Anatolia and Eastern Black Sea regions. EJFT, 87, 52-62.
  • Belitz H-D, Grosch, W, Schieberle P (2009): Food Chemistry. 4th revised and enlarged edition. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin.
  • Bogdanov S (2009): Harmonised Methods of the International Honey Commission. Available at https://www.ihc-platform.net/ihcmethods2009.pdf. (Accessed February 20, 2021).
  • Capuano E, Fogliano V (2011): Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF): A review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food and mitigation strategies. LWT-Food Sci Technol, 44, 793-810.
  • da Silva PM, Gauche C, Gonzaga LV, et al (2016): Honey: Chemical composition, stability and authenticity. Food Chem, 196, 309-323.
  • de Smet, L, Saegerman C, Ravoet J, et al (2018): Hydroxylmethylfurfural induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of the Toll pathway in honey bees. 296. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium of the ICP-PR Bee Protection Group; Ghent, Belgium.
  • Dümen E, Akkaya H, Öz GM, et al (2013): Microbiological and parasitological quality of honey produced in İstanbul. Turk J Vet Anim Sci, 37, 602-607.
  • Escriche I, Kadar M, Juan-Borras, M, et al (2014): Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment. Food Chem, 142, 135-143.
  • Güler Z (2005): The chemical and sensory properties of honeys produced in the east blacksea region. Gıda, 30, 379-384.
  • Güzel N, Bahçeci KS (2020): Assesment of some chemical quality parameters of honeys produced in Çorum province. Gıda, 45, 230-241.
  • Horwitz, W., & Albert, R (2006): The Horwitz ratio (HorRat): a useful index of method performance with respect to precision. J AOAC Int, 89, 1095-1109.
  • Islam MN, Khalil MI, Islam MA, et al (2014): Toxic compounds in honey. J Appl Toxicol, 34, 733-742.
  • Kahraman T, Buyukunal SK, Vural A, et al (2010): Physico-chemical properties of honey from different regions of Turkey. Food Chem, 123, 41-44.
  • Korkmaz SD, Küplülü Ö (2017). Effects of storage temperature on HMF and diastase activity of strained honeys. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg, 64, 281-287.
  • Kutlu M, Bengü AŞ (2015). Identification of the quality criteria of honey produced in Gaziantep. TJNS, 4, 48-53.
  • Magnusson B, Örnemark U (2014): The Fitness for Purpose of Analytical Methods – A Laboratory Guide to Method Validation and Related Topics. Available at https://www.eurachem.org/images/stories/Guides/pdf/MV_guide_2nd_ed_EN.pdf. (Accessed February 20, 2021).
  • Önür İ, Misra NN, Barba FJ, et al (2018): Effects of ultrasound and high pressure on physicochemical properties and HMF formation in Turkish honey types. J Food Eng, 219, 129-136.
  • Sakač MB, Jovanov PT, Marić AZ, et al (2019): Physicochemical properties and mineral content of honey samples from Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia). Food chem, 276, 15-21.
  • Sant'Ana LD, Ferreira ABB, Lorenzon MCA, et al (2014): Correlation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Brazilian honeys with colour and antioxidant capacity. Int J Food Prop, 17, 65-76.
  • 21. Şengül M, Şengül M, Dodoloğlu A (2006). Erzurum’da üretilen balların fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri. 863. In: Proceedings of the 9. Gıda Mühendisliği Kongresi; Bolu, Turkey.
  • Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı (2020): Turkish Food Codex Honey Communiqué Available at https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2020/04/20200422-13.htm. (Accessed February 20, 2021).
  • Tomlinson AJ, Landers JP, Lewis IAS, et al (1993): Buffer conditions affecting the separation of Maillard reaction products by capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A, 652, 171-177.
  • Turkut GM, Degirmenci A, Yildiz O, et al (2018): Investigating 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation kinetic and antioxidant activity in heat treated honey from different floral sources. J Food Meas Charact, 12, 2358-2365.
  • Unubol Aypak S, Inci A, Bakirci S, et al (2018): Comparison of the antioxidant activity and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels in honey taken from hives and markets. Gıda, 44, 86-92
  • Yaşar S, Söğütlü İ (2020). Investigation of acidity, diastase number, HMF, insoluble dry matter and ash percentage values of some honey samples produced in Bingöl and districts. Van Vet J, 31, 42-45.
  • Yıldız İ, Rasgele PG, Kekeçoğlu M (2018): Determination of the physicochemical properties of pine, cotton, multifloral and sunflower honeys. U Bee J., 16, 2-11.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Veterinary
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Nesrin İÇLİ (Primary Author)
Kastamonu University, Faculty of Health Science, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
0000-0002-0617-0639
Türkiye

Supporting Institution ABSENT
Project Number ABSENT
Thanks The author would like to thank the Kastamonu University Central Research Laboratory Application and Research Center, where she was responsible for the chromatography unit, for their contribution in conducting this study.
Publication Date December 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume , Issue

Cite

Bibtex @research article { auvfd886000, journal = {Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {1308-2817}, address = {}, publisher = {Ankara University}, year = {2022}, volume = {}, pages = { - }, doi = {10.33988/auvfd.886000}, title = {Evaluation of HMF levels in unbranded flower honeys in terms of food safety}, key = {cite}, author = {İçli, Nesrin} }
APA İçli, N. (2022). Evaluation of HMF levels in unbranded flower honeys in terms of food safety . Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi , , . DOI: 10.33988/auvfd.886000
MLA İçli, N. "Evaluation of HMF levels in unbranded flower honeys in terms of food safety" . Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi (2022 ): <http://vetjournal.ankara.edu.tr/en/pub/issue/48904/886000>
Chicago İçli, N. "Evaluation of HMF levels in unbranded flower honeys in terms of food safety". Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi (2022 ):
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of HMF levels in unbranded flower honeys in terms of food safety AU - Nesrin İçli Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.33988/auvfd.886000 DO - 10.33988/auvfd.886000 T2 - Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - EP - VL - IS - SN - -1308-2817 M3 - doi: 10.33988/auvfd.886000 UR - https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.886000 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi Evaluation of HMF levels in unbranded flower honeys in terms of food safety %A Nesrin İçli %T Evaluation of HMF levels in unbranded flower honeys in terms of food safety %D 2022 %J Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi %P -1308-2817 %V %N %R doi: 10.33988/auvfd.886000 %U 10.33988/auvfd.886000
ISNAD İçli, Nesrin . "Evaluation of HMF levels in unbranded flower honeys in terms of food safety". Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi / (December 2022): - . https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.886000
AMA İçli N. Evaluation of HMF levels in unbranded flower honeys in terms of food safety. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg. 2022; -.
Vancouver İçli N. Evaluation of HMF levels in unbranded flower honeys in terms of food safety. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 2022; -.
IEEE N. İçli , "Evaluation of HMF levels in unbranded flower honeys in terms of food safety", Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, Dec. 2022, doi:10.33988/auvfd.886000