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Yıl 2020, Cilt: 67 Sayı: 2, 209 - 214, 03.03.2020
https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.695432

Öz

Kaynakça

  • 1. Abuelo A, Hernández J, Benedito JL, et al (2019): Redox biology in transition periods of dairy cattle: Role in the health of periparturient and neonatal animals. Antioxidants, 8, 20.
  • 2. Arshad U, Zenobi MG, Staples CR, et al (2020): Meta-analysis of the effects of supplemental rumen-protected choline during the transition period on performance and health of parous dairy cow. J Dairy Sci, 103, 282-300.
  • 3. Baldi A (2005): Vitamin E in dairycows. Livest Prod Sci, 98, 117-122.
  • 4. Baldi A, Bruckmaier R, D’ambrosio F, et al (2011): Rumen-protected choline supplementation in periparturient dairy goats: effects on liver and mammary gland. J Agric Sci, 150, 1-7.
  • 5. Baldi A, Pinotti L (2006): Choline metabolism in high-producing dairy cows; metabolic and nutritional basis. Can J Anim Sci, 86, 207-212.
  • 6. Baldi A, Pinotti L (2015): Antioxidant nutrition in dairy ruminants. In Book of Abstracts of the 66th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
  • 7. Baldi A, Savoini G, Pinotti L, et al (2000): Effect of vitamin E and different energy sources on vitamin E status, milk quality and reproduction in transition cows. J Vet Med A, 47, 599-608.
  • 8. Baldi A, Pinotti L, Giromini C, et al (2018): Nutritional strategies to counteract oxidative stress: benefits and challenges.In Book of abstracts of the 69th Annual Meeting of The European Association for Animal Production. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
  • 9. Brüsemeister F, Sudekum KH (2006): Rumen-protected choline for dairy cows: the in situ evaluation of a commercial source and literature evaluation of effects on performance and interactions between methionine and choline metabolism. Anim Res, 55, 93-104.
  • 10. Brzezinska-Slebodzinska E, Miller JK, Quigley JD, et al (1994): Antioxidant status of dairy cows supplemented prepartum with vitamin E and selenium. J Dairy Sci, 77, 3087-3905.
  • 11. Campbell MH, Miller JK (1998): Effect of supplemental dietary vitamin E and zinc on reproductive performance of dairy cows and heifers fed excess iron. J Dairy Sci, 81, 2693-2699.
  • 12. Chung YH, Brown NE, Martinez CM, et al (2009): Effects of rumen-protected choline and dry propylene glycol on feed intake and blood parameters for Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. J Dairy Sci, 92, 2729–2736.
  • 13. Cooke RF, Silva Del Río N, Caraviello DZ, et al (2007): Supplemental Choline for Prevention and Alleviation of Fatty Liver in Dairy Cattle. J Dairy Sci, 90, 2413-2418.
  • 14. Emmanuel B, Kennelly JJ (1984). Kinetics of methionine and choline and their incorporation into plasma lipids and milk components in lactating goats. J Dairy Sci, 67, 1912-1918.
  • 15. Garg MR, Sherasia PL, Bhanderi BM (2012): Effect of supplementing bypass fat with and without rumen protected choline chloride on milk yield and serum lipid profile in Jaffarabadi buffaloes. Buffalo Bull, 31, 91-97
  • 16. Hogan JS, Weiss WP, Todhunter DA, et al (1992): Bovine neutrophil responses to parenteral vitamin E. J Dairy Sci, 75, 340- 399.
  • 17. Hogan JS, Weiss WP, Smith KL (1993): Role of vitamin E and selenium in host defence against mastitis. J Dairy Sci, 76, 2795-2908.
  • 18. Humer E, Bruggeman G, Zebeli Q (2019): A Meta-Analysis on the Impact of the Supplementation of Rumen-Protected Choline on the Metabolic Health and Performance of Dairy Cattle. Animals 9, 566.
  • 19. Kankofer M, Lipko J, Zdunczyk S (2005): Total antioxidant capacity of bovine spontaneously released and retained placenta. Pathophysiology, 11, 215-219.
  • 20. Kumar R, Nayak S, Baghel RPS, et al (2017): Effect of Prill Fat and Rumen Protected Choline Supplementation on Feed Intake, Body Weight Changes and Economics of Lactating Murrah Buffaloes. J Anim Res, 7, 355-359.
  • 21. LeBlanc SJ, Herdt TH, Seymour WM, et al (2004): Peripartum serum vitamin e, retinol, and beta-carotene in dairy cattle and their associations with disease. J Dairy Sci, 87, 609-619.
  • 22. Lobley GE, Connell A, Revell D (1996): The importance of transmethylation reactions to methionine metabolism in sheep: effect of supplementation with creatine and choline. Brit J Nutr, 75, 1, 47-56.
  • 23. Moyo N, Nielen M, Kruitwagen C, et al (2005): Vitamin E Supplementation and Udder Health: A Meta-Analysis. 159-165.In: H. Hogeveen (Ed), Mastitis in Dairy Production. Current Knowledge and Future Solutions, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  • 24. NRC (2001): Nutrient requirements in dairy cattle. Natl. Acad. Press 7th ed., Washington DC.
  • 25. Panda N, Kaur H, Mohanty TK (2005): Reproductive Performance of Dairy Buffaloes Supplemented with Varying Levels of Vitamin E. Asian-Aust. J Anim Sci, 19, 19-25.
  • 26. Piepenbrink MS, Overton TR (2003): Liver metabolism and production of cows fed increasing amounts of rumen-protected choline during the periparturient period. J Dairy Sci, 86, 1722-1733.
  • 27. Pilotto A, Savoini G, Baldi A, et al (2016): Associations between blood fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and α-tocopherol in the periparturient period in dairy cows: An observational study. J Dairy Sci, 99, 8121-8126.
  • 28. Pinotti L (2012): Vitamin-Like Supplementation in Dairy Ruminants: The Case of Choline. 65-86. In: Narongsak Chaiyabutr (Ed), Milk Production - An Up-to-Date Overview of Animal Nutrition, Management and Health, InTech, Narongsak Chaiyabutr, Croatia.
  • 29. Pinotti L, Baldi A, Dell’Orto V (2002): Comparative mammalian choline metabolism with emphasis on the high-yielding dairy cow. Nutr. Res. Rev, 15: 315–331.
  • 30. Pinotti L, Baldi A, Politis I, et al (2003): Rumen protected choline administration to transition cows: effects on milk production and Vitamin E status. J Vet Med A, 50, 18-21.
  • 31. Pinotti L, Campagnoli A, Dell’Orto V, et al (2005): Choline: Is there a need in lactating dairy cow, Livest Prod Sci, 98, 149-152.
  • 32. Pinotti L, Campagnoli A, D’Ambrosio F, et al (2008): Rumen-Protected Choline and Vitamin E Supplementation in Periparturient Dairy Goats: Effects on Milk Production and Folate, Vitamin B12 and Vitamin E Status. Animal, 2, 1019-1027.
  • 33. Politis I, Hidiroglou N, Batra TR, et al (1995): Effects of Vitamin E on Immune Function of Dairy Cows. Am J Vet Res, 56, 179-184.
  • 34. Politis I (2012): Reevaluation of vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows: Bioavailability, animal health and milk quality. Animal, 6, 1427–1434
  • 35. Preynat A, Lapierre H, Thivierge MC, et al (2009). Effects of supplements of folic acid, vitamin B12, and rumen-protected methionine on whole body metabolism of methionine and glucose in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 92, 677-689.
  • 36. Rebucci R, Pinotti L, Fusi E, et al (2013). Role of Choline and Methionine in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cell Line Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide. J Nutr Ecol Food Res, 1, 189-193.
  • 37. Sales J, Homolka P, Koukolová V (2010): Effect of dietary rumen-protected choline on milk production of dairy cows: A meta-analysis. J Dairy Sci, 93, 3746-3754.
  • 38. Smith KL, Harrison JH, Hancock DD, et al (1984): Effect of Vitamin E and Selenium Supplementation on Incidence of Clinical Mastitis and Duration of Clinical Symptoms. J Dairy Sci, 67, 1293-1300.
  • 39. Tsiplakou E, Mavrommatis A, Kalogeropoulos T, et al (2017): The effect of dietary supplementation with rumen-protected methionine alone or in combination with rumen-protected choline and betaine on sheep milk and antioxidant capacity. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, 101, 1004-1013.
  • 40. Toker NY (2007): Blood serum Vitamin A and E concentrationsand distribution into lipoprotein fractionsof pregnant sheep and newborn lambs. Revue Méd Vét, 158, 413-417.
  • 41. Vagni S, Saccone F, Pinotti L, et al (2011): Vitamin E Bioavailability: Past and Present Insights. Food Nutr Sci, 2, 1088-1096.
  • 42. Weiss WP, Hogan JS, Todhunter DA, et al (1997): Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation in Diets with a Low Concentration of Selenium on Mammary Gland Health of Dairy Cows. J Dairy Sci, 80, 1728-1737.
  • 43. Weiss WP (1998): Requirements of Fat-Soluble Vitamins for Dairy Cows: A Review. J Dairy Sci, 81, 2493-2501.
  • 44. Zenobi MG, Scheffler TL, Zuniga JE, et al (2018): Feeding increasing amounts of ruminally protected choline decreased fatty liver in nonlactating, pregnant Holstein cows in negative energy status. J Dairy Sci, 101, 5902–5923.

The role of micronutrients in high-yielding dairy ruminants: Choline and vitamin E

Yıl 2020, Cilt: 67 Sayı: 2, 209 - 214, 03.03.2020
https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.695432

Öz

This review addresses the potential role of antioxidants and methyl-group sources in optimising the metabolic health of dairy ruminants. The productivity of high-yielding dairy cows has increased over the past 40 years and the milk yield has doubled. Such increases in milk production have been observed not only in dairy cows but also to some extent in other dairy ruminants such as ewes, goats and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). As a consequence, in all specialized dairy ruminants it is essential to optimize the macro and micro-nutrient supply, especially during the most critical period in the animals' production cycle i.e. from parturition until the peak of lactation. In this critical phase, an array of factors can enhance the balance between the intake and demand for nutrients, although the availability and supply of the selected micronutrients is also important. The supplementation of dietary antioxidants or boosting the endogenous methyl group status, via vitamin E, selenium and choline are proposed as possible strategies in maintaining stable metabolic health and optimising milk production.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Abuelo A, Hernández J, Benedito JL, et al (2019): Redox biology in transition periods of dairy cattle: Role in the health of periparturient and neonatal animals. Antioxidants, 8, 20.
  • 2. Arshad U, Zenobi MG, Staples CR, et al (2020): Meta-analysis of the effects of supplemental rumen-protected choline during the transition period on performance and health of parous dairy cow. J Dairy Sci, 103, 282-300.
  • 3. Baldi A (2005): Vitamin E in dairycows. Livest Prod Sci, 98, 117-122.
  • 4. Baldi A, Bruckmaier R, D’ambrosio F, et al (2011): Rumen-protected choline supplementation in periparturient dairy goats: effects on liver and mammary gland. J Agric Sci, 150, 1-7.
  • 5. Baldi A, Pinotti L (2006): Choline metabolism in high-producing dairy cows; metabolic and nutritional basis. Can J Anim Sci, 86, 207-212.
  • 6. Baldi A, Pinotti L (2015): Antioxidant nutrition in dairy ruminants. In Book of Abstracts of the 66th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
  • 7. Baldi A, Savoini G, Pinotti L, et al (2000): Effect of vitamin E and different energy sources on vitamin E status, milk quality and reproduction in transition cows. J Vet Med A, 47, 599-608.
  • 8. Baldi A, Pinotti L, Giromini C, et al (2018): Nutritional strategies to counteract oxidative stress: benefits and challenges.In Book of abstracts of the 69th Annual Meeting of The European Association for Animal Production. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
  • 9. Brüsemeister F, Sudekum KH (2006): Rumen-protected choline for dairy cows: the in situ evaluation of a commercial source and literature evaluation of effects on performance and interactions between methionine and choline metabolism. Anim Res, 55, 93-104.
  • 10. Brzezinska-Slebodzinska E, Miller JK, Quigley JD, et al (1994): Antioxidant status of dairy cows supplemented prepartum with vitamin E and selenium. J Dairy Sci, 77, 3087-3905.
  • 11. Campbell MH, Miller JK (1998): Effect of supplemental dietary vitamin E and zinc on reproductive performance of dairy cows and heifers fed excess iron. J Dairy Sci, 81, 2693-2699.
  • 12. Chung YH, Brown NE, Martinez CM, et al (2009): Effects of rumen-protected choline and dry propylene glycol on feed intake and blood parameters for Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. J Dairy Sci, 92, 2729–2736.
  • 13. Cooke RF, Silva Del Río N, Caraviello DZ, et al (2007): Supplemental Choline for Prevention and Alleviation of Fatty Liver in Dairy Cattle. J Dairy Sci, 90, 2413-2418.
  • 14. Emmanuel B, Kennelly JJ (1984). Kinetics of methionine and choline and their incorporation into plasma lipids and milk components in lactating goats. J Dairy Sci, 67, 1912-1918.
  • 15. Garg MR, Sherasia PL, Bhanderi BM (2012): Effect of supplementing bypass fat with and without rumen protected choline chloride on milk yield and serum lipid profile in Jaffarabadi buffaloes. Buffalo Bull, 31, 91-97
  • 16. Hogan JS, Weiss WP, Todhunter DA, et al (1992): Bovine neutrophil responses to parenteral vitamin E. J Dairy Sci, 75, 340- 399.
  • 17. Hogan JS, Weiss WP, Smith KL (1993): Role of vitamin E and selenium in host defence against mastitis. J Dairy Sci, 76, 2795-2908.
  • 18. Humer E, Bruggeman G, Zebeli Q (2019): A Meta-Analysis on the Impact of the Supplementation of Rumen-Protected Choline on the Metabolic Health and Performance of Dairy Cattle. Animals 9, 566.
  • 19. Kankofer M, Lipko J, Zdunczyk S (2005): Total antioxidant capacity of bovine spontaneously released and retained placenta. Pathophysiology, 11, 215-219.
  • 20. Kumar R, Nayak S, Baghel RPS, et al (2017): Effect of Prill Fat and Rumen Protected Choline Supplementation on Feed Intake, Body Weight Changes and Economics of Lactating Murrah Buffaloes. J Anim Res, 7, 355-359.
  • 21. LeBlanc SJ, Herdt TH, Seymour WM, et al (2004): Peripartum serum vitamin e, retinol, and beta-carotene in dairy cattle and their associations with disease. J Dairy Sci, 87, 609-619.
  • 22. Lobley GE, Connell A, Revell D (1996): The importance of transmethylation reactions to methionine metabolism in sheep: effect of supplementation with creatine and choline. Brit J Nutr, 75, 1, 47-56.
  • 23. Moyo N, Nielen M, Kruitwagen C, et al (2005): Vitamin E Supplementation and Udder Health: A Meta-Analysis. 159-165.In: H. Hogeveen (Ed), Mastitis in Dairy Production. Current Knowledge and Future Solutions, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  • 24. NRC (2001): Nutrient requirements in dairy cattle. Natl. Acad. Press 7th ed., Washington DC.
  • 25. Panda N, Kaur H, Mohanty TK (2005): Reproductive Performance of Dairy Buffaloes Supplemented with Varying Levels of Vitamin E. Asian-Aust. J Anim Sci, 19, 19-25.
  • 26. Piepenbrink MS, Overton TR (2003): Liver metabolism and production of cows fed increasing amounts of rumen-protected choline during the periparturient period. J Dairy Sci, 86, 1722-1733.
  • 27. Pilotto A, Savoini G, Baldi A, et al (2016): Associations between blood fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and α-tocopherol in the periparturient period in dairy cows: An observational study. J Dairy Sci, 99, 8121-8126.
  • 28. Pinotti L (2012): Vitamin-Like Supplementation in Dairy Ruminants: The Case of Choline. 65-86. In: Narongsak Chaiyabutr (Ed), Milk Production - An Up-to-Date Overview of Animal Nutrition, Management and Health, InTech, Narongsak Chaiyabutr, Croatia.
  • 29. Pinotti L, Baldi A, Dell’Orto V (2002): Comparative mammalian choline metabolism with emphasis on the high-yielding dairy cow. Nutr. Res. Rev, 15: 315–331.
  • 30. Pinotti L, Baldi A, Politis I, et al (2003): Rumen protected choline administration to transition cows: effects on milk production and Vitamin E status. J Vet Med A, 50, 18-21.
  • 31. Pinotti L, Campagnoli A, Dell’Orto V, et al (2005): Choline: Is there a need in lactating dairy cow, Livest Prod Sci, 98, 149-152.
  • 32. Pinotti L, Campagnoli A, D’Ambrosio F, et al (2008): Rumen-Protected Choline and Vitamin E Supplementation in Periparturient Dairy Goats: Effects on Milk Production and Folate, Vitamin B12 and Vitamin E Status. Animal, 2, 1019-1027.
  • 33. Politis I, Hidiroglou N, Batra TR, et al (1995): Effects of Vitamin E on Immune Function of Dairy Cows. Am J Vet Res, 56, 179-184.
  • 34. Politis I (2012): Reevaluation of vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows: Bioavailability, animal health and milk quality. Animal, 6, 1427–1434
  • 35. Preynat A, Lapierre H, Thivierge MC, et al (2009). Effects of supplements of folic acid, vitamin B12, and rumen-protected methionine on whole body metabolism of methionine and glucose in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 92, 677-689.
  • 36. Rebucci R, Pinotti L, Fusi E, et al (2013). Role of Choline and Methionine in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cell Line Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide. J Nutr Ecol Food Res, 1, 189-193.
  • 37. Sales J, Homolka P, Koukolová V (2010): Effect of dietary rumen-protected choline on milk production of dairy cows: A meta-analysis. J Dairy Sci, 93, 3746-3754.
  • 38. Smith KL, Harrison JH, Hancock DD, et al (1984): Effect of Vitamin E and Selenium Supplementation on Incidence of Clinical Mastitis and Duration of Clinical Symptoms. J Dairy Sci, 67, 1293-1300.
  • 39. Tsiplakou E, Mavrommatis A, Kalogeropoulos T, et al (2017): The effect of dietary supplementation with rumen-protected methionine alone or in combination with rumen-protected choline and betaine on sheep milk and antioxidant capacity. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, 101, 1004-1013.
  • 40. Toker NY (2007): Blood serum Vitamin A and E concentrationsand distribution into lipoprotein fractionsof pregnant sheep and newborn lambs. Revue Méd Vét, 158, 413-417.
  • 41. Vagni S, Saccone F, Pinotti L, et al (2011): Vitamin E Bioavailability: Past and Present Insights. Food Nutr Sci, 2, 1088-1096.
  • 42. Weiss WP, Hogan JS, Todhunter DA, et al (1997): Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation in Diets with a Low Concentration of Selenium on Mammary Gland Health of Dairy Cows. J Dairy Sci, 80, 1728-1737.
  • 43. Weiss WP (1998): Requirements of Fat-Soluble Vitamins for Dairy Cows: A Review. J Dairy Sci, 81, 2493-2501.
  • 44. Zenobi MG, Scheffler TL, Zuniga JE, et al (2018): Feeding increasing amounts of ruminally protected choline decreased fatty liver in nonlactating, pregnant Holstein cows in negative energy status. J Dairy Sci, 101, 5902–5923.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Veteriner Cerrahi
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Luciano PINOTTI
Milan University, Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, Milan, Italy;
Italy


Michele MANONI
Milan University, Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, Milan, Italy;
Italy


Francesca FUMAGALLI
Milan University, Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, Milan, Italy;
Italy


Nicoletta ROVERE
Milan University, Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, Milan, Italy;
Italy


Marco TRETOLA
Agroscope, Institute for Livestock Sciences, Posieux
Switzerland


Antonella BALDI
Milan University, Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, Milan, Italy
Italy

Yayımlanma Tarihi 3 Mart 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020Cilt: 67 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { auvfd695432, journal = {Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1300-0861}, eissn = {1308-2817}, address = {}, publisher = {Ankara Üniversitesi}, year = {2020}, volume = {67}, number = {2}, pages = {209 - 214}, doi = {10.33988/auvfd.695432}, title = {The role of micronutrients in high-yielding dairy ruminants: Choline and vitamin E}, key = {cite}, author = {Pınottı, Luciano and Manonı, Michele and Fumagallı, Francesca and Rovere, Nicoletta and Tretola, Marco and Baldı, Antonella} }
APA Pınottı, L. , Manonı, M. , Fumagallı, F. , Rovere, N. , Tretola, M. & Baldı, A. (2020). The role of micronutrients in high-yielding dairy ruminants: Choline and vitamin E . Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi , 67 (2) , 209-214 . DOI: 10.33988/auvfd.695432
MLA Pınottı, L. , Manonı, M. , Fumagallı, F. , Rovere, N. , Tretola, M. , Baldı, A. "The role of micronutrients in high-yielding dairy ruminants: Choline and vitamin E" . Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 67 (2020 ): 209-214 <https://vetjournal.ankara.edu.tr/tr/pub/issue/52756/695432>
Chicago Pınottı, L. , Manonı, M. , Fumagallı, F. , Rovere, N. , Tretola, M. , Baldı, A. "The role of micronutrients in high-yielding dairy ruminants: Choline and vitamin E". Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 67 (2020 ): 209-214
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The role of micronutrients in high-yielding dairy ruminants: Choline and vitamin E AU - LucianoPınottı, MicheleManonı, FrancescaFumagallı, NicolettaRovere, MarcoTretola, AntonellaBaldı Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.33988/auvfd.695432 DO - 10.33988/auvfd.695432 T2 - Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 209 EP - 214 VL - 67 IS - 2 SN - 1300-0861-1308-2817 M3 - doi: 10.33988/auvfd.695432 UR - https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.695432 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi The role of micronutrients in high-yielding dairy ruminants: Choline and vitamin E %A Luciano Pınottı , Michele Manonı , Francesca Fumagallı , Nicoletta Rovere , Marco Tretola , Antonella Baldı %T The role of micronutrients in high-yielding dairy ruminants: Choline and vitamin E %D 2020 %J Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1300-0861-1308-2817 %V 67 %N 2 %R doi: 10.33988/auvfd.695432 %U 10.33988/auvfd.695432
ISNAD Pınottı, Luciano , Manonı, Michele , Fumagallı, Francesca , Rovere, Nicoletta , Tretola, Marco , Baldı, Antonella . "The role of micronutrients in high-yielding dairy ruminants: Choline and vitamin E". Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 67 / 2 (Mart 2020): 209-214 . https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.695432
AMA Pınottı L. , Manonı M. , Fumagallı F. , Rovere N. , Tretola M. , Baldı A. The role of micronutrients in high-yielding dairy ruminants: Choline and vitamin E. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg. 2020; 67(2): 209-214.
Vancouver Pınottı L. , Manonı M. , Fumagallı F. , Rovere N. , Tretola M. , Baldı A. The role of micronutrients in high-yielding dairy ruminants: Choline and vitamin E. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 2020; 67(2): 209-214.
IEEE L. Pınottı , M. Manonı , F. Fumagallı , N. Rovere , M. Tretola ve A. Baldı , "The role of micronutrients in high-yielding dairy ruminants: Choline and vitamin E", Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 67, sayı. 2, ss. 209-214, Mar. 2020, doi:10.33988/auvfd.695432