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Rumen physiology: microorganisms, fermentation and manipulation

Yıl 2021, Cilt 68, Sayı 4, 423 - 434, 27.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.960447

Öz

Ruminants are unique mammals that can convert the energy in roughage to edible products for humans. Hence, rumen fermentation has been excessively on the scope of researchers for long years. Advances in rumen fermentation are a vital concern to provide food with good quality for the growing population of man. This review focuses on physiology of rumen fermentation and the recent advances in the field.

Kaynakça

  • Asanuma N, Iwamoto M, Hino T, et al (1999): Effect of the addition of fumarate on methane production by ruminal microorganisms in vitro. J Dairy Sci, 82, 780-787.
  • Attwood GT, Kelly WJ, Altermann EH, et al (2008): Application of rumen microbial genome information to livestock systems in the postgenomic era. Aust J Exp Agric, 48, 695-700.
  • Bansal S, Goel G (2015): Commercial application of rumen microbial enzymes. 281-291. In: AK Puniya, R Singh, DN Kamra (Eds), Rumen Microbiology: From Evolution to Revolution. Springer, New Delhi.
  • Beauchemin KA, Kreuzer M, O'mara F, et al (2008): Nutritional management for enteric methane abatement: a review. Austr J Exp Agric, 48, 21-27.
  • Becerril R, Gómez-Lus R, Goni, P, et al (2007): Combination of analytical and microbiological techniques to study the antimicrobial activity of a new active food packaging containing cinnamon or oregano against E. coli and S. aureus. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 388, 1003-1011.
  • Benchaar C, Pomar C, Chiquette J (2001): Evaluation of diet strategies to reduce methane production in ruminants: A modelling approach. Can J Anim Sci, 81, 563-574.
  • Burt, S. (2004): Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods-a review. Int J Food Microbiol, 94, 223-253.
  • Callaway TR, Edrington TS, Rychlik JL, et al (2003): Ionophores: their use as ruminant growth promotants and impact on food safety. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol, 4, 43-51.
  • Castillo-González AR, Burrola-Barraza ME, Domínguez-Viveros J, et al (2014): Rumen microorganisms and fermentation. Arch Med Vet, 46, 349-361.
  • Cecava MJ (1995): Rumen physiology and energy requirements. 3-24. In: T Petty, M Cecava (Eds), Beef Cattle Feeding and Nutrition. Academic Press, California.
  • Chaucheyras F, Fonty G, Bertin G, et al (1995): Effects of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells on zoospore germination, growth, and cellulolytic activity of the rumen anaerobic fungus, Neocallimastix frontalis MCH3. Curr Microbiol, 31, 201-205.
  • Chen G, Russell JB (1989): More monensin-sensitive, ammonia-producing bacteria from the rumen. Appl Environ Microbiol, 55, 1052-1057.
  • Chesson A, Forsberg CW (1997): Polysaccharide degradation by rumen microorganisms. 329-381. In: PN Hobson, CS Stewart (Eds), The rumen microbial ecosystem. Springer, Dordrecht.
  • Choudhury PK, Salem AZM, Jena R, et al (2015): Rumen Microbiology: An Overview, 3-16. In: AK Puniya, R Singh, DN Kamra (Eds), Rumen Microbiology: From Evolution to Revolution. Springer, New Delhi.
  • Chung YH, He ML, McGinn SM, et al (2011): Linseed suppresses enteric methane emissions from cattle fed barley silage, but not from those fed grass hay. Anim Feed Sci Technol, 166, 321-329.
  • Clark H, Pinares-Patiño C, De Klein C (2005): Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from grazed grasslands. 279-293. In: DA McGilloway (Ed), Grassland: A Global Resource, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen.
  • Clauss M, Hofmann RR, Streich WJ, et al (2010): Convergence in the macroscopic anatomy of the reticulum in wild ruminant species of different feeding types and a new resulting hypothesis on reticular function. J Zool, 281, 26-38.
  • Cobellis G, Trabalza-Marinucci M, Yu Z (2016): Critical evaluation of essential oils as rumen modifiers in ruminant nutrition: A review. Sci Total Environ, 545, 556-568.
  • Cotta MA (1988): Amylolytic activity of selected species of ruminal bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol, 54, 772-776.
  • Czerkawski JW (1986): An Introduction to Rumen Studies. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
  • De Araújo DAM, Freitas C, Cruz JS (2011): Essential oils components as a new path to understand ion channel molecular pharmacology. Life Sci, 89, 540-544.
  • Demirtaş A, Pişkin İ (2013): Isırgan otu (Urtica dioica L.), papatya (Matricaria chamomilla L.) ve hayıt meyvesi (Vitex agnus-castus L.) ekstraktlarının normal koşullarda ve asidoz koşullarında rumen mikrobiyal fermentasyonuna in vitro etkileri. Doktora Tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • Demirtas A, Musa SAA, Pekcan M, et al (2020): Effects of cleavers (Galium aparine) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium) extracts on rumen microbial fermentation in in-vitro semi-continuous culture system (Rusitec). Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg, 26, 385-390.
  • Doreau M, Ferlay A (1995): Effect of dietary lipids on nitrogen metabolism in the rumen: a review. Livest Prod Sci, 43, 97-110.
  • Eckard RJ, Grainger C, De Klein CAM (2010): Options for the abatement of methane and nitrous oxide from ruminant production: a review. Livest Sci, 130, 47-56.
  • Ellis JL, Dijkstra J, Kebreab E, et al (2008): Aspects of rumen microbiology central to mechanistic modelling of methane production in cattle. J Agric Sci, 146, 213-233.
  • Eun JS, Beauchemin KA (2007): Assessment of the efficacy of varying experimental exogenous fibrolytic enzymes using in vitro fermentation characteristics. Anim Feed Sci Technol, 132, 298-315.
  • Faverdin P (1999): The effect of nutrients on feed intake in ruminants. Proc Nutr Soc, 58, 523-531
  • Fox NJ, Smith LA, Houdijk JGM, et al (2018): Ubiquitous parasites drive a 33% increase in methane yield from livestock. Int J Parasitol, 48, 1017-1021.
  • Gencoglu H, Turkmen II (2006): Effects of forage source on chewing and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Rev Med Vet, 157, 463.
  • Gilbert RA, Klieve AV (2015): Ruminal Viruses (Bacteriophages, Archaeaphages). 121-141. In: AK Puniya, R Singh, DN Kamra (Eds), Rumen Microbiology: From Evolution to Revolution. Springer, New Delhi.
  • Gonelimali FD, Lin J, Miao W et al (2018): Antimicrobial properties and mechanism of action of some plant extracts against food pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Front Microbiol, 9, 1639.
  • Greathead H (2003): Plants and plant extracts for improving animal productivity. Proc Nutr Soc, 62, 279-290.
  • Guan H, Wittenberg KM, Ominski KH et al (2006): Efficacy of ionophores in cattle diets for mitigation of enteric methane. J Anim Sci, 84, 1896-1906.
  • Gür G, Öztürk H (2021): Ruminantlarda metan salinimini azaltma stratejileri. Veteriner Farmakoloji ve Toksikoloji Derneği Bülteni, 12, 43-54.
  • Hammer KA, Carson CF (2011): Antibacterial and antifungal activities of essential oils. 255 – 293. In: G Bergsson, H Hilmarsson, H Thormar, (Eds), Lipids and Essential Oils. John Wiley & Sons, New Delhi.
  • Haque N, Saraswat ML, Sahoo A (2001): Methane production and energy balance in crossbred male calves fed on rations containing different ratios of green sorghum and wheat straw. Indian J Anim Sci, 71, 797-799.
  • Haque MN (2018): Dietary manipulation: a sustainable way to mitigate methane emissions from ruminants. J Anim Sci Technol, 60, 15.
  • Hegarty RS, Klieve AV (1999): Opportunities for biological control of ruminal methanogenesis. Aust J Agric Res, 50, 1315-1320.
  • Hungate RE (1950): The anaerobic mesophilic cellulolytic bacteria. Bacteriol Rev, 14, 1-49.
  • Hungate RE (1960): I. Microbial ecology of the rumen. Bacteriol Rev, 24, 353-364.
  • Hungate RE, Mah RA, Simesen M (1961): Rates of production of individual volatile fatty acids in the rumen of lactating cows. Appl Microbiol, 9, 554-561.
  • Jalc D, Ceresnakova Z (2002): Effect of plant oils and malate on rumen fermentation in vitro. Czech J Anim Sci 47, 106-111.
  • Janssen PH, Kirs M (2008): Structure of the archaeal community of the rumen. Appl Environ Microbiol, 74, 3619-3625.
  • Joblin KN (1999): Ruminal acetogens and their potential to lower ruminant methane emissions. Aust J Agric Res, 50, 1307-1314.
  • Johnson KA, Johnson DE (1995): Methane emissions from cattle. J Anim Sci, 73, 2483-2492.
  • Kamra DN (2005): Rumen microbial ecosystem. Curr Sci India, 89, 124-135.
  • Karcol J, Kasarda R, Šimko M (2017): Effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on production performance of dairy cows. Acta Fytotech Zootech, 19, 163-166.
  • Klieve AV, Bauchop T (1988): Morphological diversity of ruminal bacteriophages from sheep and cattle. Appl Environ Microbiol, 54, 1637-1641.
  • Krehbiel CR (2014): Invited review: applied nutrition of ruminants: fermentation and digestive physiology. Prof Anim Sci, 30, 129-139.
  • Kung JRL, AO Hession (1995): Preventing in vitro lactate accumulation in ruminal fermentations by inoculation with Megasphaera elsdenii. J Anim Sci, 73, 250-256.
  • Lambers H, Chapin FS, Pons TL (2008): Plant physiological ecology. Second Edition, Springer, New York.
  • Lila ZA, Mohammed N, Yasui T, et al (2004): Effects of a twin strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells on mixed ruminal microorganism fermentation in vitro. J Anim Sci, 82, 1847-1854.
  • Lovett DK, Lovell S, Stack L, et al (2003): Effect of forage/concentrate ratio and dietary coconut oil level on methane output and performance of finishing beef heifers. Livest Prod Sci, 84, 135-146.
  • Maia MR, Chaudhary LC, Figueres L, et al (2007): Metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their toxicity to the microflora of the rumen. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 91, 303-314.
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Rumen Fizyolojisi: Mikroorganizmaları, Fermantasyonu ve Manipülasyon

Yıl 2021, Cilt 68, Sayı 4, 423 - 434, 27.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.960447

Öz

Ruminantlar, bitki yapısal unsurlarından oluşan kaba yemin tüketilebilir ürünlere dönüştürülmesinde eşsiz hayvanlardır. Bu nedenle, rumen fermentasyonu konusu bilim insanları tarafından uzun yıllardır yoğun bir şekilde araştırılmaktadır. Rumen fermentasyon performansında elde edilen ilerlemeler nüfusu hızla artan insanlığın kaliteli gıda ihtiyacının karşılanmasında hayati öneme sahiptir. Bu derlemede rumen fermentasyonu fizyolojisi ve son zamanlarda ki ilerlemeler ele alınmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Asanuma N, Iwamoto M, Hino T, et al (1999): Effect of the addition of fumarate on methane production by ruminal microorganisms in vitro. J Dairy Sci, 82, 780-787.
  • Attwood GT, Kelly WJ, Altermann EH, et al (2008): Application of rumen microbial genome information to livestock systems in the postgenomic era. Aust J Exp Agric, 48, 695-700.
  • Bansal S, Goel G (2015): Commercial application of rumen microbial enzymes. 281-291. In: AK Puniya, R Singh, DN Kamra (Eds), Rumen Microbiology: From Evolution to Revolution. Springer, New Delhi.
  • Beauchemin KA, Kreuzer M, O'mara F, et al (2008): Nutritional management for enteric methane abatement: a review. Austr J Exp Agric, 48, 21-27.
  • Becerril R, Gómez-Lus R, Goni, P, et al (2007): Combination of analytical and microbiological techniques to study the antimicrobial activity of a new active food packaging containing cinnamon or oregano against E. coli and S. aureus. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 388, 1003-1011.
  • Benchaar C, Pomar C, Chiquette J (2001): Evaluation of diet strategies to reduce methane production in ruminants: A modelling approach. Can J Anim Sci, 81, 563-574.
  • Burt, S. (2004): Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods-a review. Int J Food Microbiol, 94, 223-253.
  • Callaway TR, Edrington TS, Rychlik JL, et al (2003): Ionophores: their use as ruminant growth promotants and impact on food safety. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol, 4, 43-51.
  • Castillo-González AR, Burrola-Barraza ME, Domínguez-Viveros J, et al (2014): Rumen microorganisms and fermentation. Arch Med Vet, 46, 349-361.
  • Cecava MJ (1995): Rumen physiology and energy requirements. 3-24. In: T Petty, M Cecava (Eds), Beef Cattle Feeding and Nutrition. Academic Press, California.
  • Chaucheyras F, Fonty G, Bertin G, et al (1995): Effects of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells on zoospore germination, growth, and cellulolytic activity of the rumen anaerobic fungus, Neocallimastix frontalis MCH3. Curr Microbiol, 31, 201-205.
  • Chen G, Russell JB (1989): More monensin-sensitive, ammonia-producing bacteria from the rumen. Appl Environ Microbiol, 55, 1052-1057.
  • Chesson A, Forsberg CW (1997): Polysaccharide degradation by rumen microorganisms. 329-381. In: PN Hobson, CS Stewart (Eds), The rumen microbial ecosystem. Springer, Dordrecht.
  • Choudhury PK, Salem AZM, Jena R, et al (2015): Rumen Microbiology: An Overview, 3-16. In: AK Puniya, R Singh, DN Kamra (Eds), Rumen Microbiology: From Evolution to Revolution. Springer, New Delhi.
  • Chung YH, He ML, McGinn SM, et al (2011): Linseed suppresses enteric methane emissions from cattle fed barley silage, but not from those fed grass hay. Anim Feed Sci Technol, 166, 321-329.
  • Clark H, Pinares-Patiño C, De Klein C (2005): Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from grazed grasslands. 279-293. In: DA McGilloway (Ed), Grassland: A Global Resource, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen.
  • Clauss M, Hofmann RR, Streich WJ, et al (2010): Convergence in the macroscopic anatomy of the reticulum in wild ruminant species of different feeding types and a new resulting hypothesis on reticular function. J Zool, 281, 26-38.
  • Cobellis G, Trabalza-Marinucci M, Yu Z (2016): Critical evaluation of essential oils as rumen modifiers in ruminant nutrition: A review. Sci Total Environ, 545, 556-568.
  • Cotta MA (1988): Amylolytic activity of selected species of ruminal bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol, 54, 772-776.
  • Czerkawski JW (1986): An Introduction to Rumen Studies. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
  • De Araújo DAM, Freitas C, Cruz JS (2011): Essential oils components as a new path to understand ion channel molecular pharmacology. Life Sci, 89, 540-544.
  • Demirtaş A, Pişkin İ (2013): Isırgan otu (Urtica dioica L.), papatya (Matricaria chamomilla L.) ve hayıt meyvesi (Vitex agnus-castus L.) ekstraktlarının normal koşullarda ve asidoz koşullarında rumen mikrobiyal fermentasyonuna in vitro etkileri. Doktora Tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • Demirtas A, Musa SAA, Pekcan M, et al (2020): Effects of cleavers (Galium aparine) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium) extracts on rumen microbial fermentation in in-vitro semi-continuous culture system (Rusitec). Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg, 26, 385-390.
  • Doreau M, Ferlay A (1995): Effect of dietary lipids on nitrogen metabolism in the rumen: a review. Livest Prod Sci, 43, 97-110.
  • Eckard RJ, Grainger C, De Klein CAM (2010): Options for the abatement of methane and nitrous oxide from ruminant production: a review. Livest Sci, 130, 47-56.
  • Ellis JL, Dijkstra J, Kebreab E, et al (2008): Aspects of rumen microbiology central to mechanistic modelling of methane production in cattle. J Agric Sci, 146, 213-233.
  • Eun JS, Beauchemin KA (2007): Assessment of the efficacy of varying experimental exogenous fibrolytic enzymes using in vitro fermentation characteristics. Anim Feed Sci Technol, 132, 298-315.
  • Faverdin P (1999): The effect of nutrients on feed intake in ruminants. Proc Nutr Soc, 58, 523-531
  • Fox NJ, Smith LA, Houdijk JGM, et al (2018): Ubiquitous parasites drive a 33% increase in methane yield from livestock. Int J Parasitol, 48, 1017-1021.
  • Gencoglu H, Turkmen II (2006): Effects of forage source on chewing and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Rev Med Vet, 157, 463.
  • Gilbert RA, Klieve AV (2015): Ruminal Viruses (Bacteriophages, Archaeaphages). 121-141. In: AK Puniya, R Singh, DN Kamra (Eds), Rumen Microbiology: From Evolution to Revolution. Springer, New Delhi.
  • Gonelimali FD, Lin J, Miao W et al (2018): Antimicrobial properties and mechanism of action of some plant extracts against food pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Front Microbiol, 9, 1639.
  • Greathead H (2003): Plants and plant extracts for improving animal productivity. Proc Nutr Soc, 62, 279-290.
  • Guan H, Wittenberg KM, Ominski KH et al (2006): Efficacy of ionophores in cattle diets for mitigation of enteric methane. J Anim Sci, 84, 1896-1906.
  • Gür G, Öztürk H (2021): Ruminantlarda metan salinimini azaltma stratejileri. Veteriner Farmakoloji ve Toksikoloji Derneği Bülteni, 12, 43-54.
  • Hammer KA, Carson CF (2011): Antibacterial and antifungal activities of essential oils. 255 – 293. In: G Bergsson, H Hilmarsson, H Thormar, (Eds), Lipids and Essential Oils. John Wiley & Sons, New Delhi.
  • Haque N, Saraswat ML, Sahoo A (2001): Methane production and energy balance in crossbred male calves fed on rations containing different ratios of green sorghum and wheat straw. Indian J Anim Sci, 71, 797-799.
  • Haque MN (2018): Dietary manipulation: a sustainable way to mitigate methane emissions from ruminants. J Anim Sci Technol, 60, 15.
  • Hegarty RS, Klieve AV (1999): Opportunities for biological control of ruminal methanogenesis. Aust J Agric Res, 50, 1315-1320.
  • Hungate RE (1950): The anaerobic mesophilic cellulolytic bacteria. Bacteriol Rev, 14, 1-49.
  • Hungate RE (1960): I. Microbial ecology of the rumen. Bacteriol Rev, 24, 353-364.
  • Hungate RE, Mah RA, Simesen M (1961): Rates of production of individual volatile fatty acids in the rumen of lactating cows. Appl Microbiol, 9, 554-561.
  • Jalc D, Ceresnakova Z (2002): Effect of plant oils and malate on rumen fermentation in vitro. Czech J Anim Sci 47, 106-111.
  • Janssen PH, Kirs M (2008): Structure of the archaeal community of the rumen. Appl Environ Microbiol, 74, 3619-3625.
  • Joblin KN (1999): Ruminal acetogens and their potential to lower ruminant methane emissions. Aust J Agric Res, 50, 1307-1314.
  • Johnson KA, Johnson DE (1995): Methane emissions from cattle. J Anim Sci, 73, 2483-2492.
  • Kamra DN (2005): Rumen microbial ecosystem. Curr Sci India, 89, 124-135.
  • Karcol J, Kasarda R, Šimko M (2017): Effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on production performance of dairy cows. Acta Fytotech Zootech, 19, 163-166.
  • Klieve AV, Bauchop T (1988): Morphological diversity of ruminal bacteriophages from sheep and cattle. Appl Environ Microbiol, 54, 1637-1641.
  • Krehbiel CR (2014): Invited review: applied nutrition of ruminants: fermentation and digestive physiology. Prof Anim Sci, 30, 129-139.
  • Kung JRL, AO Hession (1995): Preventing in vitro lactate accumulation in ruminal fermentations by inoculation with Megasphaera elsdenii. J Anim Sci, 73, 250-256.
  • Lambers H, Chapin FS, Pons TL (2008): Plant physiological ecology. Second Edition, Springer, New York.
  • Lila ZA, Mohammed N, Yasui T, et al (2004): Effects of a twin strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells on mixed ruminal microorganism fermentation in vitro. J Anim Sci, 82, 1847-1854.
  • Lovett DK, Lovell S, Stack L, et al (2003): Effect of forage/concentrate ratio and dietary coconut oil level on methane output and performance of finishing beef heifers. Livest Prod Sci, 84, 135-146.
  • Maia MR, Chaudhary LC, Figueres L, et al (2007): Metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their toxicity to the microflora of the rumen. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 91, 303-314.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Veteriner Hekimlik
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Hakan ÖZTÜRK (Sorumlu Yazar)
ANKARA UNIVERSITY, ANKARA FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE
0000-0003-2913-2069
Türkiye


Gursel GUR
ANKARA UNIVERSITY, ANKARA FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE
0000-0002-9095-9965
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 68, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { auvfd960447, journal = {Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {1308-2817}, address = {}, publisher = {Ankara Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {68}, pages = {423 - 434}, doi = {10.33988/auvfd.960447}, title = {Rumen physiology: microorganisms, fermentation and manipulation}, key = {cite}, author = {Öztürk, Hakan and Gur, Gursel} }
APA Öztürk, H. & Gur, G. (2021). Rumen physiology: microorganisms, fermentation and manipulation . Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi , 68 (4) , 423-434 . DOI: 10.33988/auvfd.960447
MLA Öztürk, H. , Gur, G. "Rumen physiology: microorganisms, fermentation and manipulation" . Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 68 (2021 ): 423-434 <http://vetjournal.ankara.edu.tr/tr/pub/issue/65112/960447>
Chicago Öztürk, H. , Gur, G. "Rumen physiology: microorganisms, fermentation and manipulation". Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 68 (2021 ): 423-434
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Rumen physiology: microorganisms, fermentation and manipulation AU - Hakan Öztürk , Gursel Gur Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.33988/auvfd.960447 DO - 10.33988/auvfd.960447 T2 - Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 423 EP - 434 VL - 68 IS - 4 SN - -1308-2817 M3 - doi: 10.33988/auvfd.960447 UR - https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.960447 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi Rumen physiology: microorganisms, fermentation and manipulation %A Hakan Öztürk , Gursel Gur %T Rumen physiology: microorganisms, fermentation and manipulation %D 2021 %J Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi %P -1308-2817 %V 68 %N 4 %R doi: 10.33988/auvfd.960447 %U 10.33988/auvfd.960447
ISNAD Öztürk, Hakan , Gur, Gursel . "Rumen physiology: microorganisms, fermentation and manipulation". Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 68 / 4 (Eylül 2021): 423-434 . https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.960447
AMA Öztürk H. , Gur G. Rumen physiology: microorganisms, fermentation and manipulation. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg. 2021; 68(4): 423-434.
Vancouver Öztürk H. , Gur G. Rumen physiology: microorganisms, fermentation and manipulation. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 2021; 68(4): 423-434.
IEEE H. Öztürk ve G. Gur , "Rumen physiology: microorganisms, fermentation and manipulation", Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 68, sayı. 4, ss. 423-434, Eyl. 2021, doi:10.33988/auvfd.960447