Araştırma Makalesi
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Effects of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anesthesia and their reversal by atipamezole on ocular parameters and monitored anesthesia care in cats

Yıl 2022, Cilt 69, Sayı 3, 251 - 257, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.869204

Öz

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the general anesthetic drug ketamine and premedication agents medetomidine and xylazine, and their reversal by atipamezole, on monitored anesthesia care values and ocular parameters such as intraocular pressure, horizontal pupillar diameter, and Schirmer tear test in cats. A randomized, single-blinded study was conducted. Twenty intact female cats (weiging between 2.2 and 3.6 kg, and 0.5 to 5.5 years of age) referred for ovariohysterectomy (OHE) procedure by the owners at regular intervals over 4 months were included in the study. The cats were randomly divided into two groups containing 10 animals in each group. The cats were premedicated with medetomidine 80 µg/kg intramuscular in group 1 while the cats in the 2nd group were premedicated with xylazine hydrochloride 2 mg/kg intramuscular. After the OHE procedure was ended, anesthesia regimes were reversed by using atipamezole 200 µg/kg intramuscularly. Monitoring of respiration rate, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, peripheral arterial oxygen saturation, and body temperature were conducted using a patient monitor at T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4 time points. Both groups showed declines in intraocular pressure and increases in horizontal pupil diameter after anesthesia induction (T0 vs. T1, all, P<0.05); however, the chancing and recovery pattern of intraocular pressure and horizontal pupil diameter showed intergroup difference. In conclusion, xylazine/ketamine is more effective than medetomidine/ketamine in attenuating the intraocular pressure, increasing the horizontal pupil diameter, and alteration the monitored anesthesia care response in the general anesthesia.

Kaynakça

  • Badrinath SK, Vazeery A, McCarthy RJ, et al (1986): The effect of different methods of inducing anesthesia on intraocular pressure. Anesthesiol, 65, 431–435.
  • Banga PK, Singh DK, Dadu S, et al (2015): A comparative evaluation of the effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine and clonidine on intraocular pressure after suxamethonium and intubation. Saudi J Anesth, 9, 179-183.
  • Bathija R, Gupta N, Zangwill L, et al (1998): Changing definition of glaucoma. J Glaucoma, 7, 165‑169.
  • Batista CM, Laus JL, Nunes N, et al (2000): Evaluation of intraocular and partial CO2 pressure in dogs anesthetized with propofol. Vet Ophthal, 3, 17–19.
  • Benson GJ, Manning JP, Hartsfield SM, et al (1998): Intraocular Tension of the Horse. Effects of Succinylcholine and Halothane Anesthesia. Am J Vet Res, 42, 1831-1832.
  • Bruniges N, Taylor PM, Yates D (2016): Injectable anaesthesia for adult cat and kitten castration: effects of medetomidine, dexmedetomidine and atipamezole on recovery. J Fel Med Surg, 18, 860-867.
  • Brunson DB (1980): Anesthesia in ophtalmic surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, 10, 481-495.
  • Butterworth JF, Mackey DC, Wasnick JD (2013): Anesthesia for Ophthalmic Surgery. 759-771. In: JF Butterworth, DC Mackey, JD Wasnick (Eds), Morgan and Mikhail’s Clinical Anesthesiology. McGraw‑Hill Professional, New York.
  • Chmielewski NT, Brooks DE, Smith PJ, et al (1997): Visual outcome and oular survival after iris prolapse in the horse: a review of 32 cases. Equine Vet J, 29, 31–39.
  • Collins BK, Gress ME, Moore CP, et al (1997): Physiologic, pharmacologic, and practical considerations for anesthesia of domestic animals with eye disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 207, 220-230.
  • Cunningham AJ, Barry P (1986): Intraocular pressure physiology and implications for anaesthetic management. Can Anaesth Soc J, 33, 195-208.
  • Frischmeyer KJ, Miller PE, Bellay Y, et al (1993): Parenthal anticholinergics in dogs with normal and elevated intraocular pressure. Vet Surg, 23, 230-234.
  • Gelat KN (1991): Veterinary Ophthalmology. Lea & Fibiger, Philadelphia.
  • Gelat KN (2000): Essentials of Veterinary Ophthalmology. Lippincott, Philadelphia.
  • Gelatt KN, Brooks DE, Kallberg ME (2007): The Canine Glaucomas. 762-780. In: KN Gellatt (Ed), Veterinary Ophthalmology. Blackwell Publishing, Florida. 762.
  • Gellatt KN, Gwin R, Peiffer RL, et al (1977): Tonography in normal and glaucomatous beagle. Am J Vet Res, 38, 515-520.
  • Goepfert CE, Ifune C, Tempelhoff R (2010): Ischemic optic neuropathy: are we any further? Curr Opin Anaesth, 23, 582‑587.
  • Grosso A, Scozzari G, Bert F, et al (2013): Intraocular pressure variation during colorectal laparoscopic surgery: Standard pneumoperitoneum leads to reversible elevation in intraocular pressure. Surg Endosc, 27, 3370‑3376.
  • Güzel Ö, Erdikmen DO, Yıldar E, et al (2013): The effects of propofol and a diazepam/alfentanil combination in dogs aged 10 years and above on heart rate, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry data, intraocular pressure, and body temperature. Turk J Vet Anim Sci, 37, 170-176.
  • Hahnenberger RW (1976): Influence of various anesthetic drugs on intraocular pressure in cats. Alb. Won Graefes Arc Klin Exp Ophtalmol, 199, 179-186.
  • He Z, Vingrys AJ, Armitage JA, et al (2011): The role of blood pressure in glaucoma. Clin Exp Optom, 94, 133‑149.
  • Hofmeister EH, Mosunic CB, Torres BT, et al (2002): Effects of ketamine, diazepam and their combination of intraocular pressures in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res, 67, 1136-1139.
  • Hofmeister EH, Williams CO, Braun C, et al (2006): Influence of lidocaine and diazepam on peri-induction intraocular pressures in dogs anesthetized with propofolatracurium. Can J Vet Res, 26, 51–56.
  • Hofmeister H, Weinstein WL, Burger D, et al (2009): Effects of graded doses of propofol for anesthesia induction on cardiovascular parameters and intraocular pressures in normal dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg, 36, 442–448.
  • Jin Y, Wilson S, Elko EE, et al (1991): Ocular hypotensive effects of medetomidine and its analogs. J Ocul Pharmacol, 7, 285-296.
  • Karabağlı M, Özer K, Şahin I (2014): The effects of xylazine-ketamine anesthesia on intraocular pressure in dogs. J Fac Vet Med Istanbul Univ, 40, 260-263.
  • Katzenschlager SS, Deusch E, Dolezal S, et al (2002): Sevoflurane and propofol decrease intraocular pressure equally during non-ophthalmic surgery and recovery. British J Anaesth, 89, 764-766.
  • Kılıç S, Ünsaldı S (2009): Effects of isoflurane and snflurane on ocular parameters in dogs. YYU J Fac Vet Med, 20, 1-3.
  • Kovalcuka L, Birgele E (2011): The effects of some premedication and general anesthesia drugs on intraocular pressure and pupil diameter in Dog’s eyes. LLU Raksti, 26, 77-83.
  • Kymes SM, Kass MA, Anderson DR, et al (2006): Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study Group (OHTS). Management of ocular hypertension: a cost‑effectiveness approach from the ocular hypertension treatment study. Am J Ophthalmol, 141, 997‑1008.
  • Lev R, Rosen P (1994): Prophylactic lidocaine use preintubation: a review. J Emerg Med, 12, 499–506.
  • Miller RD (2005): Miller’s Anesthesia. Churchill Livingstone, USA.
  • Montazeri K, Dehghan A, Akbari S (2015): Increase in intraocular pressure is less with propofol and remifentanil than isoflurane with remifentanil during cataract surgery: A randomized controlled trial. Adv Biomed Res, 4, 55.
  • Moore D, Harris A, Wudunn D, et al (2008): Dysfunctional regulation of ocular blood flow: a risk factor for glaucoma? Clin Ophthalmol, 2, 849‑861.
  • Orkin FK, Cooperman LH (1983): Complications in Anesthesiology. Lippincott, Philadelphia.
  • Ogidigben MJ, Potter DE (1993): Comparative effects of alpha-2 and DA-2 agonists on intraocular pressure in pigmented and nonpigmented rabbits. J Ocul Pharmacol, 9, 187-199.
  • Perk EC, Güzel Ö, Gülanber EG (2002): Etomidate/alfentanil anaesthesia in dogs and its effects on pulse oxymeter, electrocardiography and haematological parameters. Turk J Vet Anim Sci, 26, 1021–1024.
  • Presbitero JV, Ruiz RS, Rigor BM, et al (1980): Intraocular pressure during enflorane and neurolept anesthesia in adult patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery. Anesth Analg, 59, 50-54.
  • Pierce-Tomlin T, Shaughnessy MR, Hofmeister EH (2020): A systematic review of the effects of injectable sedative and anesthetic drugs and inhalant anesthetics on intraocular pressure in the dog. Vet Anaesth Analg, 47, 145-151.
  • Sator S, Wildling E, Schabernig C, et al (1998): Desflurane maintains intraocular pressure at an equivalent level to isoflurane and propofol during unstressed nonophtalmic surgery. British J Anaesth, 80, 243-244.
  • Smith MD, Barletta M, Diehl KA, et al (2019): Effect of propofol and ketamine-diazepam on intraocular pressure in healthy premedicated dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg, 46, 36-42.
  • Verbruggen AMJ, Akkerdaas LC, Hellebrekers LJ (2000): Effects of intravenous medetomidine on pupil size and intraocular pressure in normotensive dog. Vet Quarter, 22, 179-180.
  • Weber ED, Colyer MH, Lesser RL, et al (2007): Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy after minimally invasive prostatectomy. J Neuroophthalmol, 27, 285‑287.
  • Williams LW, Gelatt KN, Gum GG, et al (1983): Orthograde rapid axoplasmic transport and ultrastructural changes of the optic nerve. Part 1. Normotensive and acute ocular hypertensive beagles. Glaucoma, 5, 117–128.
  • Zimmerman AA, Funk KJ, Tidwell JL (1996): Propofol and alfentanil prevent the increase in intraocular pressure caused by succinylcholine and endotracheal intubation during a rapid sequence induction of anesthesia. Vet Anaesth Analg, 83, 814–817.

Yıl 2022, Cilt 69, Sayı 3, 251 - 257, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.869204

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Badrinath SK, Vazeery A, McCarthy RJ, et al (1986): The effect of different methods of inducing anesthesia on intraocular pressure. Anesthesiol, 65, 431–435.
  • Banga PK, Singh DK, Dadu S, et al (2015): A comparative evaluation of the effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine and clonidine on intraocular pressure after suxamethonium and intubation. Saudi J Anesth, 9, 179-183.
  • Bathija R, Gupta N, Zangwill L, et al (1998): Changing definition of glaucoma. J Glaucoma, 7, 165‑169.
  • Batista CM, Laus JL, Nunes N, et al (2000): Evaluation of intraocular and partial CO2 pressure in dogs anesthetized with propofol. Vet Ophthal, 3, 17–19.
  • Benson GJ, Manning JP, Hartsfield SM, et al (1998): Intraocular Tension of the Horse. Effects of Succinylcholine and Halothane Anesthesia. Am J Vet Res, 42, 1831-1832.
  • Bruniges N, Taylor PM, Yates D (2016): Injectable anaesthesia for adult cat and kitten castration: effects of medetomidine, dexmedetomidine and atipamezole on recovery. J Fel Med Surg, 18, 860-867.
  • Brunson DB (1980): Anesthesia in ophtalmic surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, 10, 481-495.
  • Butterworth JF, Mackey DC, Wasnick JD (2013): Anesthesia for Ophthalmic Surgery. 759-771. In: JF Butterworth, DC Mackey, JD Wasnick (Eds), Morgan and Mikhail’s Clinical Anesthesiology. McGraw‑Hill Professional, New York.
  • Chmielewski NT, Brooks DE, Smith PJ, et al (1997): Visual outcome and oular survival after iris prolapse in the horse: a review of 32 cases. Equine Vet J, 29, 31–39.
  • Collins BK, Gress ME, Moore CP, et al (1997): Physiologic, pharmacologic, and practical considerations for anesthesia of domestic animals with eye disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 207, 220-230.
  • Cunningham AJ, Barry P (1986): Intraocular pressure physiology and implications for anaesthetic management. Can Anaesth Soc J, 33, 195-208.
  • Frischmeyer KJ, Miller PE, Bellay Y, et al (1993): Parenthal anticholinergics in dogs with normal and elevated intraocular pressure. Vet Surg, 23, 230-234.
  • Gelat KN (1991): Veterinary Ophthalmology. Lea & Fibiger, Philadelphia.
  • Gelat KN (2000): Essentials of Veterinary Ophthalmology. Lippincott, Philadelphia.
  • Gelatt KN, Brooks DE, Kallberg ME (2007): The Canine Glaucomas. 762-780. In: KN Gellatt (Ed), Veterinary Ophthalmology. Blackwell Publishing, Florida. 762.
  • Gellatt KN, Gwin R, Peiffer RL, et al (1977): Tonography in normal and glaucomatous beagle. Am J Vet Res, 38, 515-520.
  • Goepfert CE, Ifune C, Tempelhoff R (2010): Ischemic optic neuropathy: are we any further? Curr Opin Anaesth, 23, 582‑587.
  • Grosso A, Scozzari G, Bert F, et al (2013): Intraocular pressure variation during colorectal laparoscopic surgery: Standard pneumoperitoneum leads to reversible elevation in intraocular pressure. Surg Endosc, 27, 3370‑3376.
  • Güzel Ö, Erdikmen DO, Yıldar E, et al (2013): The effects of propofol and a diazepam/alfentanil combination in dogs aged 10 years and above on heart rate, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry data, intraocular pressure, and body temperature. Turk J Vet Anim Sci, 37, 170-176.
  • Hahnenberger RW (1976): Influence of various anesthetic drugs on intraocular pressure in cats. Alb. Won Graefes Arc Klin Exp Ophtalmol, 199, 179-186.
  • He Z, Vingrys AJ, Armitage JA, et al (2011): The role of blood pressure in glaucoma. Clin Exp Optom, 94, 133‑149.
  • Hofmeister EH, Mosunic CB, Torres BT, et al (2002): Effects of ketamine, diazepam and their combination of intraocular pressures in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res, 67, 1136-1139.
  • Hofmeister EH, Williams CO, Braun C, et al (2006): Influence of lidocaine and diazepam on peri-induction intraocular pressures in dogs anesthetized with propofolatracurium. Can J Vet Res, 26, 51–56.
  • Hofmeister H, Weinstein WL, Burger D, et al (2009): Effects of graded doses of propofol for anesthesia induction on cardiovascular parameters and intraocular pressures in normal dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg, 36, 442–448.
  • Jin Y, Wilson S, Elko EE, et al (1991): Ocular hypotensive effects of medetomidine and its analogs. J Ocul Pharmacol, 7, 285-296.
  • Karabağlı M, Özer K, Şahin I (2014): The effects of xylazine-ketamine anesthesia on intraocular pressure in dogs. J Fac Vet Med Istanbul Univ, 40, 260-263.
  • Katzenschlager SS, Deusch E, Dolezal S, et al (2002): Sevoflurane and propofol decrease intraocular pressure equally during non-ophthalmic surgery and recovery. British J Anaesth, 89, 764-766.
  • Kılıç S, Ünsaldı S (2009): Effects of isoflurane and snflurane on ocular parameters in dogs. YYU J Fac Vet Med, 20, 1-3.
  • Kovalcuka L, Birgele E (2011): The effects of some premedication and general anesthesia drugs on intraocular pressure and pupil diameter in Dog’s eyes. LLU Raksti, 26, 77-83.
  • Kymes SM, Kass MA, Anderson DR, et al (2006): Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study Group (OHTS). Management of ocular hypertension: a cost‑effectiveness approach from the ocular hypertension treatment study. Am J Ophthalmol, 141, 997‑1008.
  • Lev R, Rosen P (1994): Prophylactic lidocaine use preintubation: a review. J Emerg Med, 12, 499–506.
  • Miller RD (2005): Miller’s Anesthesia. Churchill Livingstone, USA.
  • Montazeri K, Dehghan A, Akbari S (2015): Increase in intraocular pressure is less with propofol and remifentanil than isoflurane with remifentanil during cataract surgery: A randomized controlled trial. Adv Biomed Res, 4, 55.
  • Moore D, Harris A, Wudunn D, et al (2008): Dysfunctional regulation of ocular blood flow: a risk factor for glaucoma? Clin Ophthalmol, 2, 849‑861.
  • Orkin FK, Cooperman LH (1983): Complications in Anesthesiology. Lippincott, Philadelphia.
  • Ogidigben MJ, Potter DE (1993): Comparative effects of alpha-2 and DA-2 agonists on intraocular pressure in pigmented and nonpigmented rabbits. J Ocul Pharmacol, 9, 187-199.
  • Perk EC, Güzel Ö, Gülanber EG (2002): Etomidate/alfentanil anaesthesia in dogs and its effects on pulse oxymeter, electrocardiography and haematological parameters. Turk J Vet Anim Sci, 26, 1021–1024.
  • Presbitero JV, Ruiz RS, Rigor BM, et al (1980): Intraocular pressure during enflorane and neurolept anesthesia in adult patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery. Anesth Analg, 59, 50-54.
  • Pierce-Tomlin T, Shaughnessy MR, Hofmeister EH (2020): A systematic review of the effects of injectable sedative and anesthetic drugs and inhalant anesthetics on intraocular pressure in the dog. Vet Anaesth Analg, 47, 145-151.
  • Sator S, Wildling E, Schabernig C, et al (1998): Desflurane maintains intraocular pressure at an equivalent level to isoflurane and propofol during unstressed nonophtalmic surgery. British J Anaesth, 80, 243-244.
  • Smith MD, Barletta M, Diehl KA, et al (2019): Effect of propofol and ketamine-diazepam on intraocular pressure in healthy premedicated dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg, 46, 36-42.
  • Verbruggen AMJ, Akkerdaas LC, Hellebrekers LJ (2000): Effects of intravenous medetomidine on pupil size and intraocular pressure in normotensive dog. Vet Quarter, 22, 179-180.
  • Weber ED, Colyer MH, Lesser RL, et al (2007): Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy after minimally invasive prostatectomy. J Neuroophthalmol, 27, 285‑287.
  • Williams LW, Gelatt KN, Gum GG, et al (1983): Orthograde rapid axoplasmic transport and ultrastructural changes of the optic nerve. Part 1. Normotensive and acute ocular hypertensive beagles. Glaucoma, 5, 117–128.
  • Zimmerman AA, Funk KJ, Tidwell JL (1996): Propofol and alfentanil prevent the increase in intraocular pressure caused by succinylcholine and endotracheal intubation during a rapid sequence induction of anesthesia. Vet Anaesth Analg, 83, 814–817.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Veteriner Hekimlik
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Murat KİBAR> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ARTVİN VOCATIONAL SCHOOL
0000-0001-8879-4121
Türkiye


Abdulkadir KESKİN>
ULUDAG UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF VETERINARY
0000-0001-7149-0009
Türkiye


Ayperi AYTMİRZAKİZİ Bu kişi benim
KYRGYZ - TURKISH MANAS UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-3363-0941
Kyrgyzstan


Zeynep OZTURK>
ARTVİN VOCATIONAL SCHOOL
0000-0003-0475-1357
Türkiye

Teşekkür Some part of this article was summarized from the first author’s master thesis.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 69, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { auvfd869204, journal = {Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi}, eissn = {1308-2817}, address = {}, publisher = {Ankara Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {69}, number = {3}, pages = {251 - 257}, doi = {10.33988/auvfd.869204}, title = {Effects of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anesthesia and their reversal by atipamezole on ocular parameters and monitored anesthesia care in cats}, key = {cite}, author = {Kibar, Murat and Keskin, Abdulkadir and Aytmirzakizi, Ayperi and Ozturk, Zeynep} }
APA Kibar, M. , Keskin, A. , Aytmirzakizi, A. & Ozturk, Z. (2022). Effects of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anesthesia and their reversal by atipamezole on ocular parameters and monitored anesthesia care in cats . Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi , 69 (3) , 251-257 . DOI: 10.33988/auvfd.869204
MLA Kibar, M. , Keskin, A. , Aytmirzakizi, A. , Ozturk, Z. "Effects of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anesthesia and their reversal by atipamezole on ocular parameters and monitored anesthesia care in cats" . Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 69 (2022 ): 251-257 <http://vetjournal.ankara.edu.tr/tr/pub/issue/70947/869204>
Chicago Kibar, M. , Keskin, A. , Aytmirzakizi, A. , Ozturk, Z. "Effects of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anesthesia and their reversal by atipamezole on ocular parameters and monitored anesthesia care in cats". Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 69 (2022 ): 251-257
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anesthesia and their reversal by atipamezole on ocular parameters and monitored anesthesia care in cats AU - MuratKibar, AbdulkadirKeskin, AyperiAytmirzakizi, ZeynepOzturk Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.33988/auvfd.869204 DO - 10.33988/auvfd.869204 T2 - Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 251 EP - 257 VL - 69 IS - 3 SN - -1308-2817 M3 - doi: 10.33988/auvfd.869204 UR - https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.869204 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi Effects of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anesthesia and their reversal by atipamezole on ocular parameters and monitored anesthesia care in cats %A Murat Kibar , Abdulkadir Keskin , Ayperi Aytmirzakizi , Zeynep Ozturk %T Effects of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anesthesia and their reversal by atipamezole on ocular parameters and monitored anesthesia care in cats %D 2022 %J Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi %P -1308-2817 %V 69 %N 3 %R doi: 10.33988/auvfd.869204 %U 10.33988/auvfd.869204
ISNAD Kibar, Murat , Keskin, Abdulkadir , Aytmirzakizi, Ayperi , Ozturk, Zeynep . "Effects of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anesthesia and their reversal by atipamezole on ocular parameters and monitored anesthesia care in cats". Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 69 / 3 (Haziran 2022): 251-257 . https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.869204
AMA Kibar M. , Keskin A. , Aytmirzakizi A. , Ozturk Z. Effects of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anesthesia and their reversal by atipamezole on ocular parameters and monitored anesthesia care in cats. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg. 2022; 69(3): 251-257.
Vancouver Kibar M. , Keskin A. , Aytmirzakizi A. , Ozturk Z. Effects of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anesthesia and their reversal by atipamezole on ocular parameters and monitored anesthesia care in cats. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 2022; 69(3): 251-257.
IEEE M. Kibar , A. Keskin , A. Aytmirzakizi ve Z. Ozturk , "Effects of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine anesthesia and their reversal by atipamezole on ocular parameters and monitored anesthesia care in cats", Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 69, sayı. 3, ss. 251-257, Haz. 2022, doi:10.33988/auvfd.869204