Araştırma Makalesi
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Prevalence and rapid identification of Salmonella Infantis in broiler production in Turkey

Yıl 2022, Cilt 69, Sayı 1, 1 - 8, 01.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.761263

Öz

In the present study, the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis) and other serovars were investigated in samples collected from commercial broiler chicken flocks in Turkey according to the ISO 6579:2002/Amd 1:2007, Annex D, standard method. Furthermore, previously developed S. Infantis-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods with primers targeting fljB, fliC, IMP1-IMP2-IMP3 and sinI were conducted in different media (BPW, MRSV, MKTTN, XLD, and XLT4 agars) and during four incubation stages (6, 12, 18, and 24 h) of the ISO 6579 procedure to develop rapid and reliable diagnosis method. One-hundred thirty-three (15.6%) Salmonella strains were isolated from a total of 848 samples (240 cecal swabs, 200 cloacal swabs, 190 intestinal contents, 59 feed, 39 dust, and 120 litter). The serovar distribution of isolated strains was as follows: S. Infantis, 88.70%; S. Agona, 2.3%; S. Kentucky 1.50, S. Hadar 1.50, and S. Tennessee 1.50; S. Mbandaka 0.75 %, S. Montevideo 0.75 %, S. Enteritidis 0.75 %, S. Adelaide 0.75 %, S. Liverpool 0.75 %, and S. Derby 0.75 %. Primers targeting fljB, fliC, and IMP1-IMP2-IMP3 were not able to detect all S. Infantis isolates, therefore, a novel PCR technique was developed and validated in the study. It was concluded that it is a fast, reproducible and low-cost alternative to the gold standard method by detecting the S. Infantis isolates on the 3rd day at the earliest by PCR (sinI PCR). using primers specific to S. Infantis species.

Kaynakça

  • Akiba M, Kusumoto M, Iwata T (2010): Rapid identification of Salmonella enterica serovars, Typhimurium, Choleraesuis, Infantis, Hadar, Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum, by multiplex PCR. J Microbiol Methods, 85, 9-15.
  • Amini K, Zahraci TS, Gholamreza N, et al (2010): Molecular detection of invA and spv virulence genes in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from human and animals in Iran. Afr J Microbiol Res, 4, 2202-2210.
  • Asai T, Ishihara K, Harada K, et al (2007): Long-term prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Infantis in the broiler chicken industry in Japan. Microbiol Immunolol, 51, 111-115.
  • Berchieri A, Barrow PA (1990): Further studies on the inhibition of colonization of the chicken alimentary tract with Salmonella typhimurium by pre-colonization with an avirulent mutant. Epidemiol Infect, 104, 427-441
  • Carraminana JJ, Rota C, Agustin I, et al (2004): High prevalence of multiple resistance to antibiotics in Salmonella serovars isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse in Spain. Vet Microbiol, 104, 133-139.
  • Correa IMO, Pereire LQ, Silva IGO, et al (2018): Comparison of three diagnostic methods for Salmonella enterica serovars detection in chicken rinse. Pesq Vet Bras, 38, 1300-1306.
  • Duc VM, Nakamoto Y, Fujiwara A, et al (2019): Prevalence of Salmonella in broiler chickens in Kagoshima, Japan in 2009 to 2012 and the relationship between serovars changing and antimicrobial resistance. BMC Vet Res, 15, 108.
  • El-Sharkawy H, Tahoun A, El-Galiel A, et al (2017): Epidemiological, molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from chicken farms in Egypt. Gut Pathog, 9, 8.
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2019): The European Union One Health 2018 zoonoses report. EFSA J, 17, e05926.
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2019): Salmonella control in poultry flocks and its public health impact. EFSA J, 17, 5596.
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2020): The European Union summary report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2017/2018. EFSA J, 18, e06007.
  • Gal-Mor O, Boyle EC, Grassl GA (2014): Same species, different diseases: how and why typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars differ. Front Microbiol, 5, 1-10.
  • Gosling RJ, Breslin M, Fenner J, et al (2016): An in-vitro investigation into the efficacy of disinfectants used in the duck industry against Salmonella. Avian Pathol, 45, 576-581.
  • Gradel KO, Rattenborg E (2003): A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study of persistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Danish broiler houses. Prev Vet Med, 56, 267-284.
  • Gu G, Strawn LK, Zheng J, et al (2019): Diversity and dynamics of Salmonella enterica in water sources, poultry litters, and field soils amended with poultry litter in a major agricultural area of Virginia. Front Microbiol, 10, 2868.
  • ISO (2007): Horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella spp. Amendment 1: Annex D: Detection of Salmonella spp. in animal faeces and in environmental samples from the primary production stage (ISO 6579:2002/A1:2007). International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ISO (2012): Horizontal method for the detection, enumeration and serotyping of Salmonella - Part 2. Enumeration by a miniaturized most probable number technique (EN ISO/TS 6579-2). International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ISO (2014): Microbiology of food and animal feed – Horizontal method for the detection, enumeration and serotyping of Salmonella – Part 3 (ISO)TR 6579-3 Guidelines for serotyping of Salmonella spp. Available at https://www.iso.org/obp /ui/es/#iso:std:iso:tr:6579:-3:ed-1:v1:en. (Accessed October 01, 2020).
  • ISO (2017): ISO 6579¬1:2017, Microbiology of the food chain-Horizontal method for the detection, enumeration and se¬rotyping of Salmonella – Part 1: Detection of Salmonella spp. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Issenhut-Jeanjean S, Roggentin P, Mikoleit M, et al (2014): Supplement 2008-2010 (no. 48) to the White-Kauffmann Scheme. Res Microbiol, 165, 526-530.
  • Kardos G, Farkas T, Antal M, et al (2007): Novel PCR assay for identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis. J Appl Microbiol, 45, 421-425.
  • Kiskároly F, Morić I, Dokić L, et al (2017): Development of PCR- based identification of Salmonella enterica serovars. Acta Veterinaria, 67, 271-284.
  • Le Minor L (1992): The Genus Salmonella. In: A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria: Ecophysiology, Isolation, Identification, Application. (Balows A, Truper HG, Dworkin M, Harder W, Schleifer KH Eds.) 2nd Ed., Springer-Verlag, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2760-2774.
  • Lublin A, Maler I, Mechani S, et al (2015): Survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis on and within stored table eggs. J Food Prot, 78, 287-292.
  • Lungu B, Waltman WD, Berghaus RD, et al (2012): Comparison of a real-time PCR method with a culture method for the detection of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in naturally contaminated environmental samples from integrated poultry houses. J Food Prot, 75,743-747.
  • Malorny B, Lofstrom C, Wagner M, et al (2008): Enumeration of Salmonella bacteria in food and feed samples by real-time PCR for quantitative microbial risk assessment. Appl Environ Microbiol, 74, 1299-304.
  • Marin C, Balasch S, Vega S, et al (2001): Sources of Salmonella contamination during broiler production in Eastern Spain. Prev Vet Med, 98, 39-45.
  • Mezal E, Stefanova R, Khan AA (2013): Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar javiana from food, environmental and clinical samples. Int J Food Microbiol, 164, 113-118.
  • Nashwa HM, Mahmoud AH, Adawy S (2009): Application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) for identification and characterization of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. J Faculty Vet Med, 5, 2343-2348.
  • National Salmonella Control Programme (2018): General Directorate of Food and Control, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Foresty. Available at https://www.tarim.gov.tr/GKGM/Sayfalar/EN/AnaSayfa.aspx. (Accessed 15 July 2018).
  • Nogrady N, Kardos G, Bistyak A, et al (2008): Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella Infantis isolates originating from different points of the broiler chicken–human food chain in Hungary. Int J Food Microbiol, 127, 162-167.
  • Nogrady N, Toth A, Kostyak A, et al (2007): Emergence of multidrug resistant clones of Salmonella Infantis in broiler chickens and humans in Hungary. J Antimicrob Chemother, 60, 645-648.
  • Paniel N, Noguer T (2019): Detection of Salmonella in food Matrices, from conventional methods to recent aptamer-sensing technologies. Foods, 8, 371.
  • Park H-J, Chon J-W, Lim J-S, et al (2015): Prevalence analysis and molecular characterization of Salmonella at different processing steps in broiler slaughter plants in South Korea. J Food Sci, 80, 2822-2826.
  • Pate M, Micunovic J, Golob M, et al (2019): Salmonella Infantis in broiler flocks in Slovenia: the prevalence of multidrug resistant strains with high genetic homogeneity and low biofilm-forming ability. BioMed Res Internat, 2019, 1-13.
  • Pavic A, Groves PJ, Cox JM (2011): Development and validation of a drag swab method using tampons and different diluents for the detection of members of Salmonella in broiler houses. Avian Pathol, 40, 651-656.
  • Pelkonen S, Romppanen E-L, Siitonen A et al (1994): Differentiation of Salmonella serovar Infantis isolates from human and animal sources by fingerprinting IS200 and 16S rrn loci. J Clin Microbiol, 32, 2128-2133.
  • Pulido‐Landínez M (2019): Food safety: Salmonella update in broilers. Anim Feed Sci Technol, 250, 53-58.
  • Rahmani M, Peighambari SM, Svendsen CA, et al (2013): Molecular clonality and antimicrobial resistance in salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Infantis from broilers in three Nothern regions of Iran. BMC Vet Res, 9, 66.
  • Raseta M, Djordjevic V, Vidernovic D (2015): Contamination routes of S. Infantis in food chain of broiler meat production and its significance for public health. Proce Food Sci, 5, 254-257.
  • Rozen S, Skaletsky HJ (2003): Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. 365-386. In: S Misener, SA Krawetz (Eds), Bioinformatics Methods and Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, USA.
  • Schrank IS, Moresv MAZ, Costa JLA, et al (2001): Influence of enrichment media and application of a PCR based method to detect Salmonella in poultry industry products and clinical samples. Vet Microbiol, 82, 45-53.
  • Shanmugasamy M, Velayutham T, Rajeswar J (2012): InvA gene specific PCR for detection of Salmonella from broilers. Vet World, 4, 562-564.
  • Siala M, Barbana A, Smaoui S, et al (2017). Screening and detecting Salmonella in different food matrices in Southern Tunisia using a combined enrichment/Real-Time PCR method: Correlation with conventional culture. Method Front Microbiol, 8, 2416.
  • Terentjeva M, Avsejenko J, Streikisa M, et al (2017): Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in meat and meat products in Latvia. Ann Agri Environ Med, 24, 317-321.
  • Voss-Rech D, Vaz CSL, Alves L, et al (2015): A temporal study of Salmonella enterica serotypes from broiler farms in Brazil. Poult Sci, 94, 433-441.
  • Wang J, Zheng R, Wang J (2007): Risk assessment of Salmonella in animal derived food. Chinese J Anim Quarantine, 24, 23-25.
  • Wang X, Biswas S, Paudyal N, et al (2019): Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates recovered from the food chain through National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System between 1996 and 2016. Front Microbiol, 14, 1748.
  • Wedderkopp A, Gradel KO, Jorgensen JC, et al (2001): Pre-harvest surveillance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Danish broiler flock: a 2-year study. Int J Food Microbiol, 68, 53-59.
  • Wierup M, Wahlstrom H, Lahti E, et al (2017): Occurrence of Salmonella spp.: a comparison between indoor and outdoor housing of broilers and laying hens. Acta Vet Scand, 59, 13.
  • Yum-Bir (2018): Poultry sectoral data, 2018. Available at https://www.yum-bir.org/userfiles/file. (Accessed 10 March 2019).

Yıl 2022, Cilt 69, Sayı 1, 1 - 8, 01.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.761263

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Akiba M, Kusumoto M, Iwata T (2010): Rapid identification of Salmonella enterica serovars, Typhimurium, Choleraesuis, Infantis, Hadar, Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum, by multiplex PCR. J Microbiol Methods, 85, 9-15.
  • Amini K, Zahraci TS, Gholamreza N, et al (2010): Molecular detection of invA and spv virulence genes in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from human and animals in Iran. Afr J Microbiol Res, 4, 2202-2210.
  • Asai T, Ishihara K, Harada K, et al (2007): Long-term prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Infantis in the broiler chicken industry in Japan. Microbiol Immunolol, 51, 111-115.
  • Berchieri A, Barrow PA (1990): Further studies on the inhibition of colonization of the chicken alimentary tract with Salmonella typhimurium by pre-colonization with an avirulent mutant. Epidemiol Infect, 104, 427-441
  • Carraminana JJ, Rota C, Agustin I, et al (2004): High prevalence of multiple resistance to antibiotics in Salmonella serovars isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse in Spain. Vet Microbiol, 104, 133-139.
  • Correa IMO, Pereire LQ, Silva IGO, et al (2018): Comparison of three diagnostic methods for Salmonella enterica serovars detection in chicken rinse. Pesq Vet Bras, 38, 1300-1306.
  • Duc VM, Nakamoto Y, Fujiwara A, et al (2019): Prevalence of Salmonella in broiler chickens in Kagoshima, Japan in 2009 to 2012 and the relationship between serovars changing and antimicrobial resistance. BMC Vet Res, 15, 108.
  • El-Sharkawy H, Tahoun A, El-Galiel A, et al (2017): Epidemiological, molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from chicken farms in Egypt. Gut Pathog, 9, 8.
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2019): The European Union One Health 2018 zoonoses report. EFSA J, 17, e05926.
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2019): Salmonella control in poultry flocks and its public health impact. EFSA J, 17, 5596.
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2020): The European Union summary report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2017/2018. EFSA J, 18, e06007.
  • Gal-Mor O, Boyle EC, Grassl GA (2014): Same species, different diseases: how and why typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars differ. Front Microbiol, 5, 1-10.
  • Gosling RJ, Breslin M, Fenner J, et al (2016): An in-vitro investigation into the efficacy of disinfectants used in the duck industry against Salmonella. Avian Pathol, 45, 576-581.
  • Gradel KO, Rattenborg E (2003): A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study of persistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Danish broiler houses. Prev Vet Med, 56, 267-284.
  • Gu G, Strawn LK, Zheng J, et al (2019): Diversity and dynamics of Salmonella enterica in water sources, poultry litters, and field soils amended with poultry litter in a major agricultural area of Virginia. Front Microbiol, 10, 2868.
  • ISO (2007): Horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella spp. Amendment 1: Annex D: Detection of Salmonella spp. in animal faeces and in environmental samples from the primary production stage (ISO 6579:2002/A1:2007). International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ISO (2012): Horizontal method for the detection, enumeration and serotyping of Salmonella - Part 2. Enumeration by a miniaturized most probable number technique (EN ISO/TS 6579-2). International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ISO (2014): Microbiology of food and animal feed – Horizontal method for the detection, enumeration and serotyping of Salmonella – Part 3 (ISO)TR 6579-3 Guidelines for serotyping of Salmonella spp. Available at https://www.iso.org/obp /ui/es/#iso:std:iso:tr:6579:-3:ed-1:v1:en. (Accessed October 01, 2020).
  • ISO (2017): ISO 6579¬1:2017, Microbiology of the food chain-Horizontal method for the detection, enumeration and se¬rotyping of Salmonella – Part 1: Detection of Salmonella spp. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Issenhut-Jeanjean S, Roggentin P, Mikoleit M, et al (2014): Supplement 2008-2010 (no. 48) to the White-Kauffmann Scheme. Res Microbiol, 165, 526-530.
  • Kardos G, Farkas T, Antal M, et al (2007): Novel PCR assay for identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis. J Appl Microbiol, 45, 421-425.
  • Kiskároly F, Morić I, Dokić L, et al (2017): Development of PCR- based identification of Salmonella enterica serovars. Acta Veterinaria, 67, 271-284.
  • Le Minor L (1992): The Genus Salmonella. In: A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria: Ecophysiology, Isolation, Identification, Application. (Balows A, Truper HG, Dworkin M, Harder W, Schleifer KH Eds.) 2nd Ed., Springer-Verlag, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2760-2774.
  • Lublin A, Maler I, Mechani S, et al (2015): Survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis on and within stored table eggs. J Food Prot, 78, 287-292.
  • Lungu B, Waltman WD, Berghaus RD, et al (2012): Comparison of a real-time PCR method with a culture method for the detection of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in naturally contaminated environmental samples from integrated poultry houses. J Food Prot, 75,743-747.
  • Malorny B, Lofstrom C, Wagner M, et al (2008): Enumeration of Salmonella bacteria in food and feed samples by real-time PCR for quantitative microbial risk assessment. Appl Environ Microbiol, 74, 1299-304.
  • Marin C, Balasch S, Vega S, et al (2001): Sources of Salmonella contamination during broiler production in Eastern Spain. Prev Vet Med, 98, 39-45.
  • Mezal E, Stefanova R, Khan AA (2013): Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar javiana from food, environmental and clinical samples. Int J Food Microbiol, 164, 113-118.
  • Nashwa HM, Mahmoud AH, Adawy S (2009): Application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) for identification and characterization of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. J Faculty Vet Med, 5, 2343-2348.
  • National Salmonella Control Programme (2018): General Directorate of Food and Control, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Foresty. Available at https://www.tarim.gov.tr/GKGM/Sayfalar/EN/AnaSayfa.aspx. (Accessed 15 July 2018).
  • Nogrady N, Kardos G, Bistyak A, et al (2008): Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella Infantis isolates originating from different points of the broiler chicken–human food chain in Hungary. Int J Food Microbiol, 127, 162-167.
  • Nogrady N, Toth A, Kostyak A, et al (2007): Emergence of multidrug resistant clones of Salmonella Infantis in broiler chickens and humans in Hungary. J Antimicrob Chemother, 60, 645-648.
  • Paniel N, Noguer T (2019): Detection of Salmonella in food Matrices, from conventional methods to recent aptamer-sensing technologies. Foods, 8, 371.
  • Park H-J, Chon J-W, Lim J-S, et al (2015): Prevalence analysis and molecular characterization of Salmonella at different processing steps in broiler slaughter plants in South Korea. J Food Sci, 80, 2822-2826.
  • Pate M, Micunovic J, Golob M, et al (2019): Salmonella Infantis in broiler flocks in Slovenia: the prevalence of multidrug resistant strains with high genetic homogeneity and low biofilm-forming ability. BioMed Res Internat, 2019, 1-13.
  • Pavic A, Groves PJ, Cox JM (2011): Development and validation of a drag swab method using tampons and different diluents for the detection of members of Salmonella in broiler houses. Avian Pathol, 40, 651-656.
  • Pelkonen S, Romppanen E-L, Siitonen A et al (1994): Differentiation of Salmonella serovar Infantis isolates from human and animal sources by fingerprinting IS200 and 16S rrn loci. J Clin Microbiol, 32, 2128-2133.
  • Pulido‐Landínez M (2019): Food safety: Salmonella update in broilers. Anim Feed Sci Technol, 250, 53-58.
  • Rahmani M, Peighambari SM, Svendsen CA, et al (2013): Molecular clonality and antimicrobial resistance in salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Infantis from broilers in three Nothern regions of Iran. BMC Vet Res, 9, 66.
  • Raseta M, Djordjevic V, Vidernovic D (2015): Contamination routes of S. Infantis in food chain of broiler meat production and its significance for public health. Proce Food Sci, 5, 254-257.
  • Rozen S, Skaletsky HJ (2003): Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. 365-386. In: S Misener, SA Krawetz (Eds), Bioinformatics Methods and Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, USA.
  • Schrank IS, Moresv MAZ, Costa JLA, et al (2001): Influence of enrichment media and application of a PCR based method to detect Salmonella in poultry industry products and clinical samples. Vet Microbiol, 82, 45-53.
  • Shanmugasamy M, Velayutham T, Rajeswar J (2012): InvA gene specific PCR for detection of Salmonella from broilers. Vet World, 4, 562-564.
  • Siala M, Barbana A, Smaoui S, et al (2017). Screening and detecting Salmonella in different food matrices in Southern Tunisia using a combined enrichment/Real-Time PCR method: Correlation with conventional culture. Method Front Microbiol, 8, 2416.
  • Terentjeva M, Avsejenko J, Streikisa M, et al (2017): Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in meat and meat products in Latvia. Ann Agri Environ Med, 24, 317-321.
  • Voss-Rech D, Vaz CSL, Alves L, et al (2015): A temporal study of Salmonella enterica serotypes from broiler farms in Brazil. Poult Sci, 94, 433-441.
  • Wang J, Zheng R, Wang J (2007): Risk assessment of Salmonella in animal derived food. Chinese J Anim Quarantine, 24, 23-25.
  • Wang X, Biswas S, Paudyal N, et al (2019): Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates recovered from the food chain through National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System between 1996 and 2016. Front Microbiol, 14, 1748.
  • Wedderkopp A, Gradel KO, Jorgensen JC, et al (2001): Pre-harvest surveillance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Danish broiler flock: a 2-year study. Int J Food Microbiol, 68, 53-59.
  • Wierup M, Wahlstrom H, Lahti E, et al (2017): Occurrence of Salmonella spp.: a comparison between indoor and outdoor housing of broilers and laying hens. Acta Vet Scand, 59, 13.
  • Yum-Bir (2018): Poultry sectoral data, 2018. Available at https://www.yum-bir.org/userfiles/file. (Accessed 10 March 2019).

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Veteriner Hekimlik
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Özlem ŞAHAN YAPICIER> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Veterinary Faculty
0000-0003-3579-9425
Türkiye


Barış SAREYYÜPOĞLU>
ANKARA VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-2212-2610
Türkiye

Teşekkür This study was derived from the PhD thesis of the first author. We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Mehmet Akan (Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey) for his valuable contributions (material maintenance from the field and professional advice on the study) to the study.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Ocak 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 69, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { auvfd761263, journal = {Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi}, eissn = {1308-2817}, address = {}, publisher = {Ankara Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {69}, number = {1}, pages = {1 - 8}, doi = {10.33988/auvfd.761263}, title = {Prevalence and rapid identification of Salmonella Infantis in broiler production in Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Şahan Yapıcıer, Özlem and Sareyyüpoğlu, Barış} }
APA Şahan Yapıcıer, Ö. & Sareyyüpoğlu, B. (2022). Prevalence and rapid identification of Salmonella Infantis in broiler production in Turkey . Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi , 69 (1) , 1-8 . DOI: 10.33988/auvfd.761263
MLA Şahan Yapıcıer, Ö. , Sareyyüpoğlu, B. "Prevalence and rapid identification of Salmonella Infantis in broiler production in Turkey" . Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 69 (2022 ): 1-8 <http://vetjournal.ankara.edu.tr/tr/pub/issue/67711/761263>
Chicago Şahan Yapıcıer, Ö. , Sareyyüpoğlu, B. "Prevalence and rapid identification of Salmonella Infantis in broiler production in Turkey". Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 69 (2022 ): 1-8
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence and rapid identification of Salmonella Infantis in broiler production in Turkey AU - ÖzlemŞahan Yapıcıer, BarışSareyyüpoğlu Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.33988/auvfd.761263 DO - 10.33988/auvfd.761263 T2 - Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 8 VL - 69 IS - 1 SN - -1308-2817 M3 - doi: 10.33988/auvfd.761263 UR - https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.761263 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi Prevalence and rapid identification of Salmonella Infantis in broiler production in Turkey %A Özlem Şahan Yapıcıer , Barış Sareyyüpoğlu %T Prevalence and rapid identification of Salmonella Infantis in broiler production in Turkey %D 2022 %J Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi %P -1308-2817 %V 69 %N 1 %R doi: 10.33988/auvfd.761263 %U 10.33988/auvfd.761263
ISNAD Şahan Yapıcıer, Özlem , Sareyyüpoğlu, Barış . "Prevalence and rapid identification of Salmonella Infantis in broiler production in Turkey". Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 69 / 1 (Ocak 2022): 1-8 . https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.761263
AMA Şahan Yapıcıer Ö. , Sareyyüpoğlu B. Prevalence and rapid identification of Salmonella Infantis in broiler production in Turkey. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg. 2022; 69(1): 1-8.
Vancouver Şahan Yapıcıer Ö. , Sareyyüpoğlu B. Prevalence and rapid identification of Salmonella Infantis in broiler production in Turkey. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 2022; 69(1): 1-8.
IEEE Ö. Şahan Yapıcıer ve B. Sareyyüpoğlu , "Prevalence and rapid identification of Salmonella Infantis in broiler production in Turkey", Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 69, sayı. 1, ss. 1-8, Oca. 2022, doi:10.33988/auvfd.761263